This chapter provides information for understanding the internals of FuguIta and for doing your own development based on FuguIta.

FuguIta technical information

FuguIta is based on OpenBSD, so most of its components are openBSD-related information.
For the specific parts of FuguIta that are different from the official OpenBSD, please refer to List of published documents on the Japan Post top page of this site.
(Please note that some past materials may differ from the current FuguIta.)

FuguIta source code can be found at

Make FuguIta a dedicated machine

FuguIta has all writable files in memory, so even if the power is suddenly turned off without performing a shutdown operation, etc., there will be no problem with the file system.
Unless you save files with usbfadm during operation, the system will start up in the same state each time.

Using these characteristics, you can create a dedicated machine (Turn Key System) to run a specific application based on FuguIta.

To build such a system, we use a combination of the techniques described so far;

These detailed procedures can be found on this site Creating a router with Fuguita - Example of making an appliance and Practically used FuguIta to use.

Build of FuguIta

Although the FuguIta is irregular, we publish the tools we use to build live systems. By using this construction tool, you can create the same thing as the FuguIta distribution.

In this section, we will explain the procedure for building the FuguIta. The following explanation assumes the following environment.

In other cases, please read the explanation as appropriate.

This build tool can generate ISO images for FuguIta LiveDVD on i386 and amd64 platforms, and raw disk images for FuguIta LiveUSB (LiveSD for Raspberry Pi 3/4) on arm64 platforms.

Build procedure

All operations are performed with root privileges.

Preparing the build environment

Download the FuguIta build tool tools-7.5.tar.gz and extract it.

# tar xvzpf tools-7.5.tar.gz

Move to the top directory of the build tools.

# cd tools-7.5

For arm64 platform, please also download sysmedia-7.5-arm64.img.gz, which is supplied with tools-7.5.tar.gz, and place it in the top directory of the build tool without extracting it.

Execute the following command to initialize the build tool.

 # make init

This will create the files and directories needed for the build.

Build FuguIta

Copy the installation set (*75.tgz) generated by building OpenBSD to the install_sets directory of FuguIta build tool.

# cp RELDIR/*75.tgz install_sets

RELDIR is the directory where generated release sets are stored, as described in release(8).

You can customize FuguIta by placing a file called site75.tgz under install_sets. This customization method complies with OpenBSD's .
If is included in site75.tgz, its contents will be added to /etc/rc.firsttime.
Please note that if the file sysmedia/fuguita-7.5-amd64.ffsimg exceeds 2GB as a result of building FuguIta by adding site75.tgz, the ISO image will not be created correctly.

Copy rsync, rlwrap, and pv (and its dependent: gettext-runtime and libiconv) created from the ports tree to the install_pkgs directory.
I also install rsync and pv in the build environment itself.

# cp /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/rsync-*.tgz install_pkgs
# cp /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/rlwrap-*.tgz install_pkgs
# cp /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/pv-*.tgz install_pkgs
# cp /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/gettext-runtime-*.tgz install_pkgs
# cp /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/libiconv-*.tgz install_pkgs
# pkg_add -D unsigned /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/rsync-*.tgz
# pkg_add -D unsigned /usr/ports/packages/amd64/all/pv-*.tgz

You can also download and use the installation set *75.tgz and package files rsync-*.tgz, etc. from the official OpenBSD mirror.
However, in this case, FuguIta created will be based on OpenBSD at the time the release was made public, so no later patches have been applied.
Also, even if you create FuguIta using this method, you need to extract the OpenBSD source code under /usr/src or /usr/xenocara.

Next, run the following command to set up the build environment.

# make setup

Finally, build FuguIta LiveDVD.

# make

Post-build adjustments

Create mode0symlinks.cpio.gz

This file is intended to save time when starting LiveDVD in mode 0 (even if this file is not present, there is no problem in starting FuguIta itself).

To create mode0symlinks.cpio.gz, boot the completed LiveDVD in mode 0 and run the gen_mode0sldir command as root with root privileges. After execution, a file called /etc/fuguita/mode0symlinks.cpio.gz will be created.

Place this file in the build tool's lib directory with the file name mode0symlinks.cpio.gz.amd64 and rerun make to create an ISO file containing mode0symlinks.cpio.gz.

Adjust fuguita_sys_mb

FuguIta has a file called /etc/fuguita/global.conf, which contains settings related to the entire system as shown below.

fuguita_sys_mb=1042  # size of sysmedia.img
newdrive_defswap=16M # default swap size at usbfadm newdrive
memfstype=mfs        # 'mfs' or 'tmpfs'
mfs_max_mb=30720     # mfs hard limit - 30GB

Among these, fuguita_sys_mb defines the size of the partition that stores the FuguIta system, and this value is used when remastering FuguIta LiveUSB.

The setting value of fuguita_sys_mb corresponds to the size of the livecd.iso file generated when building a LiveDVD, but it is safe to leave about 10MB in consideration of updates using the fiupdate utility.

# echo $(( $(wc -c < livecd.iso)/1024/1024+10 ))

Write the values displayed by this command to the lib/global.conf.amd64 file and rerun make.

LiveDVD remastering

Creating a LiveUSB according to the capacity of the USB memory created a LiveUSB image file. Describes how to create an image.

Since this operation deals with large size files, the size of mfs must be more than 2 gigabytes.
If mfs isn't enough, mount another recording device and work there.

This can be used with either a working FuguIta LiveDVD or FuguIta LiveUSB.
Below is an example of using

First, create a working directory and copy the contents of LiveDVD/LiveUSB under sysmedia.

fugu-demo# mkdir work
fugu-demo# cd work
fugu-demo# cp -av /sysmedia .
/sysmedia -> ./sysmedia
/sysmedia/boot -> ./sysmedia/boot
/sysmedia/bsd-fi -> ./sysmedia/bsd-fi
/sysmedia/ -> ./sysmedia/
/sysmedia/boot.catalog -> ./sysmedia/boot.catalog
/sysmedia/cdboot -> ./sysmedia/cdboot
/sysmedia/cdbr -> ./sysmedia/cdbr
/sysmedia/etc -> ./sysmedia/etc
/sysmedia/etc/boot.conf -> ./sysmedia/etc/boot.conf
/sysmedia/etc/random.seed -> ./sysmedia/etc/random.seed
/sysmedia/fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg -> ./sysmedia/fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg
fugu-demo# ls -l
total 8
drwxr-xr-x  3 root  wheel  432 May 11 09:21 sysmedia

Run inside the copied sysmedia directory. Basically that's all.

fugu-demo# cd sysmedia
fugu-demo# ls -l
total 2008728
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel	90496 May 10 20:57 boot
-rwxr--r--  1 root  wheel	 2048 May  9 12:31 boot.catalog
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel    10273019 May 10 21:04 bsd-fi
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel    10302063 May 10 21:04
-rw-r--r--  1 root  bin		91668 May 10 01:31 cdboot
-rw-r--r--  1 root  bin		 2048 May 10 01:31 cdbr
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   96 Apr 17  2014 etc
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  1007681536 May 10 21:08 fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg
mkhybrid 1.12b5.1
Scanning .
Scanning ./etc

Size of boot image is 4 sectors -> No-emulation CD boot sector
Total translation table size: 0
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 1111
Total directory bytes: 2048
Path table size(bytes): 22
502200 extents written (980 Mb)

After executing, an ISO image file will be created in the working directory.

fugu-demo# ls -l ..
total 2008808
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  1028505600 May 14 02:34 FuguIta-6.9-amd64-202105141.iso
drwxr-xr-x  3 root  wheel	  384 May 14 02:34 sysmedia
fugu-demo# ls -l
total 2008720
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel	90496 May 10 20:57 boot
-rwxr--r--  1 root  wheel	 2048 May 14 02:34 boot.catalog
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel    10273019 May 10 21:04 bsd-fi
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel    10302063 May 10 21:04
-rw-r--r--  1 root  bin		91668 May 10 01:31 cdboot
-rw-r--r--  1 root  bin		 2048 May 10 01:31 cdbr
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   96 Apr 17  2014 etc
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  1007681536 May 10 21:08 fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg

There is a file called fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg in sysmedia, which contains the FuguIta file tree. You can customize your LiveDVD by modifying the files in this file tree.

fugu-demo# vnconfig vnd0 fuguita-6.9-amd64.ffsimg
fugu-demo# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
fugu-demo# ls -l /mnt
total 52
-rw-r--r--   1 root  wheel   578 May  7 17:43 .cshrc
-rw-r--r--   1 root  wheel   468 May  7 17:43 .profile
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel   512 May  7 17:43 altroot
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel  1024 May  7 17:46 bin
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel   512 May  8 04:16 dev
drwxr-xr-x  23 root  wheel  1536 May  8 04:35 etc
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel   512 May  7 17:43 home
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel   512 May  7 17:43 mnt
drwx------   3 root  wheel   512 May  8 04:35 root
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel  1536 May  7 17:46 sbin
lrwxrwx---   1 root  wheel    11 May  7 17:43 sys -> usr/src/sys
drwxrwxrwt   2 root  wheel   512 May  8 04:19 tmp
drwxr-xr-x  14 root  wheel   512 May  8 04:09 usr
drwxr-xr-x  23 root  wheel   512 May  7 17:43 var
.... (Customization work) ...

Once customization is complete, close the filesystem image and remaster.

fugu-demo# umount /mnt
fugu-demo# vnconfig -u vnd0
mkhybrid 1.12b5.1
Scanning .
Scanning ./etc

LiveUSB disk image remastering

This section introduces how to create a LiveUSB disk image file.

Run usbfadm newdrive:

? : ? ->newdrive

Please make sure the device inserted.
Then press ENTER ->

==== disk(s) and vnode devices	============================
sd0 at scsibus1 targ 0 lun 0: <ATA, Hitachi HTS72757, JF4O>
sd0: 715404MB, 512 bytes/sector, 1465149168 sectors
sd1 at scsibus2 targ 1 lun 0: <UFD 3.0, Silicon-Power32G, 1.00>
sd1: 29624MB, 512 bytes/sector, 60669952 sectors
sd2 at scsibus5 targ 1 lun 0: <BUFFALO, USB Flash Disk, 4000>
sd2: 7788MB, 512 bytes/sector, 15950592 sectors
vnd0: not in use
vnd1: not in use
vnd2: not in use
vnd3: not in use
vnd4: not in use
vnd5: covering /sysmedia/fuguita-6.4-amd64.ffsimg on sd1a, inode 9
Enter the name of device which FuguIta will be installed->vnd0    ← Specify an unused vnode device

Enter size of a vnode device file.
You can add suffix K, M, G or T (otherwise considered 'bytes').
2048+0 records in
2048+0 records out
2147483648 bytes transferred in 3.076 secs (698129518 bytes/sec)

Disk: vnd0	geometry: 41943/1/100 [4194304 Sectors]
Offset: 0	Signature: 0x0
	    Starting	     Ending	    LBA Info:
 #: id	    C	H   S -	     C	 H   S [       start:	     size ]
 0: 00	    0	0   0 -	     0	 0   0 [	   0:		0 ] unused
 1: 00	    0	0   0 -	     0	 0   0 [	   0:		0 ] unused
 2: 00	    0	0   0 -	     0	 0   0 [	   0:		0 ] unused
 3: 00	    0	0   0 -	     0	 0   0 [	   0:		0 ] unused

Select partition type:
  1: [MBR]
  2:  GPT
  3:  Hybrid (not recommended if you wish modify partitioning later)
~ 略 ~
** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups
3 files, 3 used, 386996 free (20 frags, 48372 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)

? : ? ->bye

Bye bye...

A disk image file is created in the current directory by the above operations. The file name will be the same as the distributed one, "FuguIta-OPENBSD_VERSION-PLATFORM-RELEASE.img".

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Last-modified: 2024-05-05 (Sun) 15:10:26