In this chapter, we will explain how to create the DVD and USB memory required to start using FuguIta, and the initial settings to make when starting FuguIta.

Creating FuguIta media

LiveDVD and LiveUSB

There are two main ways to use FuguIta.

One is a method called "LiveDVD" that writes FuguIta to a DVD-R or DVD-RW and starts it.
The other method is to boot what is written in the USB memory, which is called "LiveUSB".

FuguIta can be used in the same way by using either the LiveDVD version or the LiveUSB version, but each has its own characteristics, so it is better to use them according to the purpose.

In general, it can be said that the LiveDVD version is suitable for reliable operation and economic efficiency, and the LiveUSB version is suitable for performance and convenience.

[Memo]
Using both the LiveDVD version and the LiveUSB version at the same time You can also use it in a "best of the best" way.
Using this technique, you can, for example, "use the LiveUSB version of FuguIta on a PC that does not support USB boot" or "save and read data with the LiveDVD version of FuguIta".

To get started with FuguIta for the first time, follow these steps:

  1. Download files from FuguIta's distribution site
  2. The downloaded file is compressed, so expand it
  3. Write expanded files to DVD-R or USB memory

Each step is described below.

Download

dlsite.png

FuguIta is free software. All versions of FuguIta, including the latest version, are published on the Internet and can be freely downloaded and used.

There are four download sites for FuguIta.

Since the content of the site is the same, you can download from either site in the same way.
From Japan, we recommend downloading from jp1.dl.fuguita.org or jp2.dl.fuguita.org.

When you access these sites, you will see something like the image on the right.
The distributed files are stored in three subdirectories, LiveDVD, LiveUSB and LiveSD depending on the media you want to write to, so open the directory for the media you want to obtain.


dlsite2.png

For example, when you access the LiveUSB directory, it will look like the image on the left.
Among these, the files whose names start with "FuguIta-" are the ones distributed on the FuguIta.

The meaning of this file name is as follows.

FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302031.iso.gz
        --- ----- --------- --- --+->file compression format
         |    |       |      |       ・gz ... compressed with gzip
         |    |       |      +->type of file
         |    |       |         ・iso ... ISO image for DVD-R/DVD-RW writing
         |    |       |         ・img ... Raw image for USB memory writing
         |    |       |
         |    |       +->Version of FuguIta
         |    |          ・It is in the format of "date" and "serial number"
         |    |          ・The serial number will be incremented by one
         |    |            if created more than one FuguIta in one day.
         |    |
         |    +->Compatible platform
         |       FuguIta currently supports 3 platforms: i386, amd64, and arm64.
         |        Please select the one that corresponds to the CPU model of your PC.
         |
         +->The version of OpenBSD that this FuguIta is based on

Select and download files based on whether you want to create a LiveDVD or LiveUSB, or whether your PC has an Intel 32-bit CPU or 64-bit CPU.

[Note: Supported architectures]
As explained above, when using FuguIta on a PC, it is necessary to select either i386 or amd64 depending on the type of CPU, but most PCs currently in use are amd64 Architecture 64-bit CPU. i386 is a 32-bit CPU that was developed before amd64.
arm64 is a CPU architecture commonly used in single board computers. The arm64 version of FuguIta has been confirmed to work on Raspberry Pi 3 and 4.

After the download is complete, extract the compressed file.
The following is an example of extracting files for DVD-R/DVD-RW from the shell command line on Unix OS;

gzip -d FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302031.iso.gz

When the expansion is completed, the file size will be about 1 gigabyte, and the file name will also have the .gz extension.

[Memo]
file SHA256 contains the SHA256 checksum of FuguIta's files and can be used to check if the downloaded file is corrupted.
To check, also download the SHA256 file and do the following:

sha256 -C SHA256 FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302031.iso.gz

This is an example done on OpenBSD. For other OS, please refer to their respective manuals.

Create LiveDVD

To create the LiveDVD version of FuguIta, prepare a writable DVD media such as DVD-R or DVD-RW, and write the expanded ISO format file.
Here is an example when writing on OpenBSD;

pkg_add dvd+rw-tools                                                  ←Install DVD writing software dvd+rw-tools
growisofs --dvd-compat -Z /dev/rcd0c=FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302031.iso  ←Write image

[Memo]
For other OS ISO image writing software is available so you can use such software to create FuguIta's LiveDVD .

Create LiveUSB

To create the LiveUSB version of FuguIta, prepare a USB memory with a size of 2 gigabytes or more, and write the downloaded and expanded IMG format file.
Here is an example when writing using OpenBSD;

dd if=FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302031.img of=/dev/rsd0c bs=1m

[Caution]
!!The ``/dev/rsd0c'' part in the above example is the device to write to. This depends on your PC's peripheral connections, or the type of operating system you run the dd command on. If you execute this command, all the data recorded in the specified device will be erased, so please check in advance whether the write destination is correct.

[Memo]
Similar to ISO image writing software, Various software for raw image writing is also available, so such software is available.
Even if you use a USB memory of 2 GB or more, the portion exceeding 2 GB is not used.
If you want to create a LiveUSB version of FuguIta that fits the size of the USB memory, please refer to LiveUSB remastering.

Create arm64 version of FuguIta

When making FuguIta that runs on Raspberry Pi 3 or Raspberry Pi 4, the file is written to a micro SD card instead of a USB memory. The creation method is the same as Create FuguIta's LiveUSB.

[Memo]
You can also use the "Raspberry Pi Imager" to install the OS on the Raspberry Pi and write the FuguIta disk image file to a micro SD card.

  • Specify "Use Custom" on the OS selection screen.
  • Raspberry Pi Imager will automatically expand gzipped files. It is not necessary to decompress the file with the gzip command beforehand.

Settings at startup

This chapter explains how to start FuguIta and how to enter settings during the process.

Boot device

When you insert the DVD or USB memory with FuguIta written into your PC and start it up, the FuguIta system will start up.

[Memo]
Even if you insert a DVD or USB memory and start up, Windows or Linux that has already been installed may start up. This is because the PC has a priority setting for which device to boot from, and this setting prioritizes booting from the internal hard disk over the DVD or USB memory.
In order to be able to boot FuguIta, change the settings in the PC's BIOS menu and set the priority of the DVD or USB memory higher than the internal hard disk.
The BIOS menu of the PC differs depending on the model, so please refer to the instruction manual of your PC or search on the Internet to find out.

When FuguIta starts, the following message is displayed

>> OpenBSD/amd64 CDBOOT 3.46
boot>
booting cd0a:/bsd-fi.mp: 12997960+2769928+2277408+0+708608\[806285+128+1028280+751803]=0x145cb88
entry point at 0xffffffff81001000
[ using 2587528 bytes of bsd ELF symbol table ]
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
        The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1995-2020 OpenBSD. All rights reserved.  https://www.OpenBSD.org

OpenBSD 6.7-stable (RDROOT.MP) #1: Fri Jun  5 09:41:45 JST 2020
    root@nimbus9.localnet:/opt/fi/6.7/sys/arch/amd64/compile/RDROOT.MP
real mem = 1056825344 (1007MB)
avail mem = 1010286592 (963MB)
mpath0 at root
~略~
scsibus4 at vscsi0: 256 targets
softraid0 at root
scsibus5 at softraid0: 256 targets
uhub1: illegal enable change, port 1
root on rd0a swap on wd0b dump on rd0b

[Memo]
Actually, the screen display will change to white on blue from the middle.
This message is displayed by the kernel (operating system itself).

fuguboot.png

These displays show recognition results such as the connection status of the PC's memory and peripheral devices, and are an important source of information when troubleshooting problems such as startup problems.

Once the OpenBSD kernel has finished booting, you will see the FuguIta banner.

================================================
=     ______               __   _
=    / ____/              |  |_| |__
=   / /____  ______  __  _|  /_   _/_____
=  / ___/ / / / __ \/ / / |  | | | /  _  |
= / /  / /_/ / /_/ / /_/ /|  | | |_| (_) |__
=/_/   \____/\__  /\____/ |__| \___/____/__/
=            __/ /
=           /___/
=
= Welcome to FuguIta - OpenBSD-based Live System!
=                            https://fuguita.org/
=================================================

FuguIta's banner display is followed by a survey of the disk devices connected to this PC, and which of them has the FuguIta system installed is displayed.

In the example below, it says "FuguIta's operating device(s): cd0a.", so you can see that the LiveDVD version of FuguIta is set in an optical drive such as a CD, DVD, or Blu-Ray.

So enter cd0a at the prompt "Which is FuguIta's operating device?"

[Memo]
From here on, various values ?k?kwill be entered, but if "[default: xxxx]" is displayed in those prompts, it means that xxxx is the default value. increase. In this case, even if you just enter the <Enter> key as shown in the example below, it will be considered as xxxx<Enter>.

scanning partitions: cd0a sd1d
FuguIta's operating device(s): cd0a.
Which is FuguIta's operating device? [default: cd0a] ->      ← Just press <Enter>

[Memo]
In the OpenBSD operating system, disk devices are named according to the following rules.

  • first alphanumeric characters ... device type
    • cd ... optical drive such as CD, DVD or Blu-Ray
    • wd ... hard disk (IDE, SATA connection)
    • sd ... USB memory, SD card, memory stick, SATA connection, SCSI connection, USB hard disk, etc.
    • fd ... floppy disk
  • followed by a number ... incremented from 0 if more than one device of that type is connected
  • Last alphabet ... partition in the device
    Partitions are generally used as follows;
    • c ... represents the entire device
    • b ... represents the OpenBSD swap partition within the device
    • a, d~h ... Partitions where OpenBSD files are stored. The a partition is often used as the root file system
    • i, j, etc... Partitions for Windows and Linux are often referred to as i, j partitions.
  • Note) Other than c partition and b partition, there are cases where such partition names are customarily given, and there are cases where the above explanation is not followed.

mfs size

Next, configure the memory settings.

The example below first reports that this PC has 1007 megabytes of memory available.
Then the user enters how many megabytes of that 1007MB of memory to allocate to mfs.

FuguIta does not normally use the hard disk built into the PC, so instead it secures an area to hold directories and files on the memory. OpenBSD has a mechanism called mfs (Memory File System), and FuguIta also uses this mfs.

"default: 755M" is displayed at the input location of the setting value, and if you enter only the <Enter> key, this value is assumed to be specified. Usually there is no problem with just the <Enter> key.

activating swap partition: /dev/sd0b
available memory: 1007M
total swap size: 16M

Enter mfs size.
  You can add suffix K, M, or G.
  % is a percentage of memory size.
  and %% is a percentage of the total memory and swap.
  otherwise considered "megabytes"

[default: 755M] ->         ← Just press <Enter>
set mfs size to 755MB

[Memo]
As explained in the display, the input value can be specified in kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes by appending ``K, ``M, ``G, and appending ``% Percentage of available memory, "%%" can be specified as a percentage of the total amount of available memory and swap partition.
Numerals without anything are assumed to be megabytes.

[Memo]
For the maximum capacity of mfs, the maximum value is determined for each architecture, and you cannot specify more than this value. That's around 1GB on i386, 32GB on amd64, and 16GB on arm64.

boot mode

Then move on to boot mode selection.

There are 6 types of startup modes from mode 0 to mode 5, but first select the standard mode 0.

Boot modes:
  0: fresh boot - standard mode as a live system
  1: fresh boot - less memory, faster boot (/usr is non-writable, can't pkg_add)
  2: fresh boot - works using only RAM (about 1GB or more of RAM required)
  3: boot with retrieving saved files from storage device
     or enter passphrase for an encrypted volume
  4: boot with retrieving saved files from floppy disk
  5: interactive shell for debugging
->0
Running manual setup.
Copying system files to /ram ... done
Extracting symlinks from /ram to /fuguita ... done

[Memo]
Other modes are described in Introduction and Operation.

Keyboard layout

Next is the keyboard language setting.

For Japanese keyboard, enter "jp" or "jp.swapctrlcaps".

If you enter "jp.swapctrlcaps", the positions of the <Control> and <Caps> keys will be exchanged, and the <Control> key will be to the left of the alphabet "A" key.
If you are familiar with key assignments such as Emacs editor and Bash shell, this may be better.

Enter keyboard type.

pc-xt/pc-at keyboard:
us de de.nodead fr fr.dvorak dk dk.nodead it uk jp sv sv.nodead no no.nodead us.
declk us.dvorak us.colemak us.swapctrlcaps us.iopener uk.swapctrlcaps jp.swapctr
lcaps fr.swapctrlcaps fr.swapctrlcaps.dvorak be.swapctrlcaps us.swapctrlcaps.dvo
rak us.swapctrlcaps.colemak us.swapctrlcaps.iopener es be ru ua sg sg.nodead sf 
sf.nodead pt lt la br tr tr.nodead pl hu si cf cf.nodead lv nl nl.nodead is is.n
odead ee ee.nodead
keyboard type -> jp

admin password

Following the keyboard setting, set the administrator password.

On Unix-like OSes such as OpenBSD, system administrators are called "super users", and other users are called "ordinary users".
The superuser is assigned the user name "root" in advance, so set a password for that root.

Changing password for root.
New password:                                 ← Password input is not displayed
Retype new password:                          ← Enter again for confirmation

[Memo]
On OpenBSD, if the password you enter is too short or too simple, you will get a warning and the password will not be accepted.
The following passwords are recommended;

  • At least 6 single-byte characters
  • mix uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet
  • Mix numbers, symbol characters, control characters, etc.

Network related settings

Then enter the network related settings.

[Caution]
!!The network settings differ depending on the environment of the network to be connected.
If a computer with settings that do not match the network environment is connected, the network and the connected computer may be affected unexpectedly.
When connecting FuguIta to a company or public facility, we recommend that you consult with the administrator of the network in advance regarding connection settings.

Host name

First, name the PC running FuguIta (host name: host name). Enter the host name with the domain (FQDN: Fully Qualified Domain Name). The domain part can be omitted if no domain is acceptable, such as when used in a closed network.
In this example, the host name is "fugu-demo.localnet".

Hostname with domain part (FQDN):
only host name without domain part is also OK.
-> fugu-demo.localnet

[Memo]
Domain names are not officially registered or managed on home networks, so use a suitable name. In general, .local and .localnet are often used.
If the network is managed by an organization, please consult with the administrator of that network.

IP protocol version

The next step is to set the IP protocol version to use.

IP protocol version(s) to be enabled: 4, 6, 46, 64 or "none"
  4: enable only IPv4
  6: enable only IPv6
  46: give priority to IPv4 name resolution
  64: give priority to IPv6 name resolution
  none: operate as standalone
[64] ->

Enter "4" for communication using only IPv4 protocol, "6" for only IPv6 protocol, and "46" or "64" for both IPv4 and IPv6. increase.

If you enter "none", IP network settings will not be performed, and the machine will be set as a single use without connecting to a network.

If only the <Enter> key is entered, it is assumed that "64" is entered.

Normally, there is no problem with inputting only the <Enter> key.

[Memo]
When using both IPv4 and IPv6, both "46" and "64" can be specified, but the DNS query order is different.
"46" prefers IPv4 for address queries, while "64" prefers IPv6 queries.

Network interface

Then configure the network interface.

First, a list of network interfaces connected to this PC will be displayed, so specify only one device you want to configure.

Network Interfaces: Choose one

  NIC	 type	   Name
-------- ----- ------------
    bge1 ether Broadcom BCM57766
    ure0 ether Realtek USB 10/100/1000 LAN
    run0 wifi  Ralink 802.11 n WLAN
[bge1] ->

[Memo]
"bge" is the name given to Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Even if Ethernet interfaces other than bge or Wi-Fi interfaces are connected, they will be output in the list display.
For individual network interfaces, you can check the online manual built into OpenBSD.

Wi-Fi related settings

After this, the following setting items will appear only when you select Wi-Fi device as the network interface.

Wi-Fi settings:
SSID -> my-wifinet             ← Enter the SSID of the Wi-Fi you want to connect to
WPA Key -> my-wpa-secrect-key  ← Enter WPA key

In addition, you will be asked for the WEP key when you enter only ENTER for the WPA key and do not set it.
It is strongly recommended to use WPA instead of WEP, as WEP is easily cracked nowadays.

SSID -> my-wifinet
WPA Key ->
WEP Key -> my-wep-unsecured-key

[Memo]
Wi-Fi devices require firmware supplied by the device manufacturer and may require firmware download and installation for operation.
In this case, set up a wired LAN and connect to the Internet, then refer to Using a Wi-Fi device that requires firmware download to update the Wi-Fi settings. please go
If only ENTER is entered for WEP key input, Wi-Fi connection will be attempted without either WPA or WEP key. This is used, for example, when connecting to public Wi-Fi where the key is not set.

IPv6 address

If IPv6 is enabled, the following configuration entries appear. Set the address by "auto" or manually as described. n many cases, "auto" is sufficient.

IPv6 - address and routing:
  Enter "auto" or "IPv6_address[/prefixlen] [default_gateway]"
  "auto" is an automatic setting by SLAAC.
  The "/prefixlen" part can be an integer between 0 and 128.
  If there is no default gateway, set the second field to "none" or leave it blank.
[auto] ->

[Memo]
If "/prefixlen" is omitted, "/64" is assumed.

IPv4 address

If IPv4 is enabled, the following configuration entries appear. As explained, specify "auto" or just press ENTER for address autoconfiguration. In the example below, the address is set manually by entering the address.

IPv4 - address and routing:
  Enter "auto" or "IPv4_address[/mask] [default_gateway]"
  "auto" is an automatic setting by DHCP.
  The "/mask" part can be specified in either format, such as "/255.255.255.0" or "/24".
  If there is no default gateway, set the second field to "none" or leave it blank.
[auto] -> 192.168.1.147/24 192.168.1.254

[Memo]
If you omit "/mask", a netmask that seems appropriate is assumed.
To use IPv4 address autoconfiguration, a DHCP server must already be installed on the network. Home network equipment and public Wi-Fi spots often have a DHCP server installed.

DNS Server

If you manually set the address in the IPv4 or IPv6 settings, you will be prompted to enter the DNS (Domain Name System) settings. Enter up to 3 DNS server IP addresses separated by spaces.

DNS servers: up to 3 IP addresses, separated by spaces
-> 192.168.1.253

[Memo]
DNS (Domain Name System) is a mechanism for searching for IP addresses such as "133.242.176.115" from domain names such as "fuguita.org". When a computer initiates communication, it first asks a computer called a DNS server to perform a search, and uses the IP address returned as the search result to communicate.
When communicating by directly specifying an IP address, a DNS server is not required, so enter only ENTER.

Write setting value

Finally, a configuration file that reflects the configuration values ?k?kyou have entered so far will be written under the "/etc/fuguita/netconfs/configuration name" directory.

writing configured values to:
  /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/myname
  /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/mygate
  /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/hosts
  /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/hostname.bge1
  /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/resolv.conf

Select login method

Finally, specify how you want to log in.
There are two ways to log in: one is to log in from the console screen as it is, and the other is to log in from the X Window System login screen (xenodm).
In the example below, only the <Enter> key is entered to select the default console login.

Do you login with C)onsole or X) Window System?
[default: C] -> 

Enter 'x' to log in from the X Window System.

That's it for the startup settings. After performing the remaining initialization process, Move to login screen.

            _________________________________________________
           /      Setup for FuguIta ends.         /
          / OpenBSD's boot sequence will follow. /
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Automatic boot in progress: starting file system checks.
kbd: keyboard mapping set to us
pf enabled
machdep.allowaperture: 0 -> 2
machdep.lidaction: 1 -> 0
~略~
starting network daemons: sshd smtpd sndiod.
running rc.firsttime
Path to firmware: http://firmware.openbsd.org/firmware/6.7/
Installing: vmm-firmware
starting local daemons: cron.
fuguita: disabled KARL because of read-only media

Thu Jul  2 06:51:57 UTC 2020

OpenBSD/amd64 (fugu-demo.localnet) (tty00)

login: 

This PC is available to users when the login prompt "login:" is displayed.
The rest is explained in Introduction.


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