Introduction explained the basic usage procedure of FuguIta.
In this chapter, we will introduce more advanced usage that takes advantage of the features of FuguIta.
⇒This chapter assumes that you continue to use the environment set in Introduction as follows:
- Assuming fugu-demo.localnet as hostname
- ready to access internet
- General user yoshi is created. Since yoshi also belongs to the wheel group, he can become root.
FuguIta can add various software in addition to the software provided by OpenBSD.
The easiest way to add software is to use OpenBSD's ports/packages system.
To add software for packages, run the command pkg_add as root. As an example, here is an example of installing Mozilla Firefox, a web browser.
fugu-demo$ su - Password: fugu-demo# pkg_add firefox quirks-4.53 signed on 2021-12-19T13:27:04Z quirks-4.53:(ok) firefox-95.0.1:libiconv-1.16p0:(ok) firefox-95.0.1:gettext-runtime-0.21p1:(ok) : 略 : firefox-95.0.1:dconf-0.40.0:(ok) firefox-95.0.1:gtk+3-3.24.30:(ok) firefox-95.0.1:(ok) Running tags:ok The following new rcscripts were installed: /etc/rc.d/messagebus See rcctl for details. New and changed readme(s): /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/dbus /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/firefox /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/glib2 /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/gtk+3 fugu-demo# exit fugu-demo$
In the above example, we temporarily became root using the su command. Of course, you can log out of yoshi, log back in as root, and execute pkg_add there. Executing pkg_add will also add other software required to run the target application. In the firefox example above, these are libiconv, gettext-runtime, dconf, gtk+3, etc. It is displayed that there is a document about the installed software under the directory /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes, so it is a good idea to read it.
Applications can be added in a manner similar to the example above.
See https://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/OpenBSD/7.2/packages/amd64/ with a web browser to see what software can be pkg_added from ports/packages.
⇒The ports/packages system is explained in detail at https://www.openbsd.org/faq/faq15.html. Also, in the above example, we used ftp.jaist.ac.jp as the download source, but there are other download sites, and you can see the list at https://www.openbsd.org/ftp.html. increase.
⇒It is also possible to directly compile and install the source code released by the software developer without using ports/packages, so-called "stray build".
On FuguIta, the software added by pkg_add is also subject to data save/restore by the usbfadm command.
NTP (Network Time Protocol) is a protocol (communication protocol) for synchronizing the time of each computer while communicating on the network.
OpenBSD has a function to synchronize its own time with the time reference on the Internet using NTP, and this function can also be used in FuguIta.
OpenBSD configures whether to use NTP during installation. On the other hand, FuguIta has this feature enabled by default.
The NTP function is implemented by the program ntpd, and to see the operating status of ntpd, execute the command ntpctl increase.
⇒The NTP software used by OpenBSD is called ``OpenNTPD'' and was created by the OpenBSD developers.
Linux and FreeBSD use different implementations of the same ntpd.fugu-demo$ ntpctl -s status 4/4 peers valid, constraint offset 0s, clock synced, stratum 3
If "clock synced" is displayed as in the above example, ntpd communicates with the external NTP server that serves as the time reference, and as a result, you can see that the time is synchronized. on the other hand,fugu-demo$ ntpctl -s status 0/1 peers valid, clock unsynced
If it is "clock unsynced" like this, the time has not been synchronized for some reason.
On OpenBSD, if the NTP function is enabled during installation, it will refer to a group of servers called pool.ntp.org as the time reference, and FuguIta's settings follow that.
On corporate LANs, etc., communication with external NTP servers such as pool.ntp.org may not be possible due to security concerns. In such a case, if an NTP server is operated on the company LAN, the local host's time can be kept accurate by referring to that server.
Here is how to configure the NTP server;
ntpd is configured by the file /etc/ntpd.conf, so edit ntpd.conf with root privileges.
fugu-demo$ doas -s Password: fugu-demo# vi /etc/ntpd.conf
ntpd.conf内のこの３行を ↓ servers pool.ntp.org sensor * constraints from "https://www.google.com" ↓ 以下の一行に変更 ↓ server ntp.localnet
In the above example, the settings are changed to refer to the NTP server "ntp.localnet".
After editing the configuration file, restart ntpd to reflect the changes.
A program like ntpd that runs in the background and provides services is called a daemon in Unix, but OpenBSD uses the command rcctl to operate the daemon can.
fugu-demo# rcctl restart ntpd ntpd(ok) ntpd(ok) fugu-demo#
Since the setting change work is completed above, return to the general user from root. After that, monitor the behavior of ntpd with ntpctl.
fugu-demo# exit fugu-demo$ ntpctl -s status 1/1 peers valid, clock unsynced
If it looks like the above, it is not synchronized (yet), but you can see that one peer (peer, referring NTP server) is valid.
fugu-demo$ ntpctl -s status 1/1 peers valid, clock synced, stratum 3
After a while, it was confirmed that the time was synchronized.
ntpctl can also display the state of ntpd in more detail.
Inaddition, ntpd itself leaves operation records in log files such as/var/log/daemon and /var/log/messages.
For details, refer to the manual page of each command and configuration file.
⇒ntpd corrects the time drift very slowly. This is because a sudden big change in the time may adversely affect the operation of the system. Therefore, if the time difference is large, it may take a long time to synchronize.
In the previous section, How to change the NTP server settings.
This section describes the configuration of services running on OpenBSD. Because it's not realistic to give a detailed description of every configuration method, I'll divide the configuration into categories and explain each of those categories.
Functions of the OpenBSD kernel can be controlled in a number of ways, one of which is using the sysctl command.
fugu-demo$ sysctl -a | less kern.ostype=OpenBSD kern.osrelease=5.8 kern.osrevision=201510 kern.version=OpenBSD 5.8-stable (RDROOT.MP) #2: Wed Nov 11 13:18:48 JST 2015 email@example.com:/opt/fi/5.8/sys/arch/i386/compile/RDROOT.MP kern.maxvnodes=44152 kern.maxproc=1310 ～以下略～
The example above shows all kernel parameters.
Since the display content does not fit on one screen, the display data is piped to the pager program less and displayed.
If you know in advance which parameter you want to display, you can specify its name to display it.
The example below shows the maximum amount of memory to allocate for file I/O buffering.
fugu-demo$ sysctl kern.bufcachepercent kern.bufcachepercent=20 $
From this display, you can see that the buffer is set to allocate up to 20% of the installed memory capacity.
To change this value: Root privileges are required to change settings, so sysctl commands are executed via the doas command.
fugu-demo$ doas sysctl kern.bufcachepercent=50 Password: kern.bufcachepercent: 20 -> 50 $
You can also set it automatically at system startup instead of manually running the sysctl command. For that, write the contents you want to set in a file called /etc/sysctl.conf.
⇒In addition to changing kernel settings Rewrite kernel by
- config command
- Change at boot time with UKC (User Kernel Config)
- kernel recompile
There are methods such as, but the contents that can be set and the difficulty of work differ for each. For details, please refer to each manual page and FAQ on the official site.
As explained above, network-related settings are made when FuguIta starts up, so if you can communicate without any problems, you don't need to change any settings.
If you operate FuguIta as a server or network gateway, you may need to change or add settings.
⇒What kind of network interfaces your PC has is displayed with "ifconfig -a".
OpenBSD comes with various daemons installed, including some that don't run by default. Change the NTP server that refers to the time explained how to start, stop, and change the settings of the NTP daemon as an example. Follow similar steps for other daemons.
On OpenBSD, /etc/rc.conf.local controls the startup of such daemons. and options to be given to the daemon at startup.
⇒Actually, all daemons are specified in /etc/rc.conf, and rc.conf.local is rc.conf works to override the settings of
To control the behavior of various daemons, the contents of rc.conf.local are changed, so edit it with a text editor.In addition, the command rcctl can be used to control starting/stopping daemons and to change settings. Like ntpd is configured via ntpd.conf, other daemons also have their own configuration files, many of which reside directly under /etc. In addition, the directory /etc/examples contains sample files for setting various daemons, so you can refer to, copy, or edit these files as actual setting files.
/etc/rc.local is a shell script executed during the final stages of system startup. If you want to perform processing other than what has been explained so far, describe the processing in this file.
Please refer to rc(8) for how OpenBSD starts up and shuts down.
If you specify mode 1 when starting FuguIta, the time required for the system to complete booting
will be shortened.
Various setting items are the same as mode 0.
Select boot mode; 0: fresh boot (normal) 1: fresh boot (lower memory, faster boot than mode 0) 2: fresh boot (works only on mfs) 3: retrieve user data from USB flash memory 4: retrieve user data from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging ->1
Memory usage (mfs size) after startup is also less than mode 0.
As a guideline, it will be possible to operate from a machine with about 64 MB of mounted memory;
File usage (mode 0) fugu-demo$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/rd0a 1.6M 729K 833K 47% / /dev/cd0a 697M 697M 0B 100% /sysmedia /dev/vnd5a 676M 664M 11.9M 98% /fuguita mfs 698M 25.5M 673M 4% /ram
File usage (mode 1) fugu-demo$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/rd0a 1.6M 730K 832K 47% / /dev/cd0a 697M 697M 0B 100% /sysmedia /dev/vnd5a 676M 664M 11.9M 98% /fuguita mfs 713M 6.8M 706M 1% /ram
However, boot mode 1 has the advantage of requiring fewer resources than the standard boot mode, mode 0, but has the disadvantage of not being able to change files and directories under /usr. In other words, you cannot add applications using pkg_add or the like.
Start mode 1 can be used when operation is possible only with the software included in FuguIta. The above situation will be inherited even if you restart in mode 3 after starting in mode 1 and saving the file with usbfadm.
Boot mode 2 is a mode in which all files are transferred on mfs and everything operates in memory.
Select boot mode; 0: fresh boot (normal) 1: fresh boot (lower memory, faster boot than mode 0) 2: fresh boot (works only on mfs) 3: retrieve user data from USB flash memory 4: retrieve user data from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging ->2
In mode 2, DVD and USB memory are unmounted when the system boot is completed, so you can remove those devices and operate. Since program execution and file reading and writing are all performed in memory, it can be expected to operate faster than modes 0 and 1.
fugu-demo$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/rd0a 1.6M 730K 832K 47% / mfs 813M 736M 76.7M 91% /ram
However, as explained at the beginning, in this mode 2, all system files on the DVD or USB memory are copied to mfs, so the amount of installed memory on the PC should be approximately 800MB or more as a guide.
Even in mode 2, if the file is saved with usbfadm and then restarted in mode 3, the state at the time of file saving is restored.
⇒Please note that the device cannot be removed in the following cases.
- if virtual memory usage is greater than real memory and swap partition cannot be disabled (warning message is displayed)
- If you are using encrypted partition (you will get a warning message)
- If you additionally mount partitions in that device
What is the difference in file system structure between boot mode 0 and boot mode 1? The differences are explained below.
The diagram on the right shows the file layout in startup mode 0 (click the diagram to enlarge). Example path for /bin/ed, /usr/bin/vi, pkg_added /usr/local/bin/emacs.
Root filesystem is RAM DISK, rd. This device is built into the kernel and has already been mounted since system boot. Under root is an unfamiliar directory called "boottmp". It contains commands that are necessary at the very beginning of system startup and utilities specialized for FuguIta.
The FuguIta device is actually a DVD or USB memory that stores the boot loader, OS kernel, and file system image p. It is mounted read-only at /sysmedia. The file system image on /sysmedia is mapped to /dev/vnd4 and mounted at /fuguita. This is the OpenBSD file tree. It's pretty much the original OpenBSD, except for a few changes to match the live system. This file system is also read-only. Therefore, files cannot be created, modified, or deleted under this.
/ram is a memory file system called mfs (memory file system) and is both readable and writable. Files that need to be changed, such as /etc/*.conf, user data under /home, and software added by pkg_added, are placed above this. Also, files that rarely change are replaced with symlinks to equivalent files in /fuguita. This will reduce the memory usage of mfs.
Next is boot mode 1. In boot mode 1, /usr is symbolically linked to /fuguita/usr. This makes booting faster and using less memory than mode 0 by not copying or linking /usr to /ram. However, /usr/local is not writable, so pkg_add is not possible.
The file layout for boot mode 2 is shown on the right. This is much simpler than modes 0 and 1, only / and /ram are mounted and all external devices are unmounted. Of course, all files can be changed.
On Fuguita, you can install the Japanese desktop environment by executing the command dtjsetup. Below is an example of running dtjsetup.
fugu-demo# dtjsetup ← Start dtjsetup (Both root and general users can use it) #========================================== # Welcome to dtjsetup # Desktop (and Japanese) setup utility # # for FuguIta-6.6-amd64-202001171 #========================================== Which desktop software will you install? ← Choosing a desktop environment 1: no desktop (wm only) 2: [rox-filer] 3: xfce 4: mate 5: lumina 6: lxqt -> ← If you enter only [ENTER], the You have selected the item. Which window manager will you install? ← Select a window manager if you selected 1: cwm 1 or 2 in the previous section. 2: fvwm 3: twm 4: [icewm] 5: fluxbox 6: jwm -> Will you setup Japanese language environment? [y/N] -> y Which input method will you install? 1: [scim-anthy] 2: uim-gtk 3: fcitx-anthy 4: ibus-skk -> *** You selected icewm as desktop software. *** Installing Japanese environment is YES. *** Japanese input method is scim-anthy. *** Checking your root authorization... *** OK. *** Checking network accessibility... *** OK. *** Installing packages: rox-filer icewm ja-kterm ja-sazanami-ttf mixfont-mplus-ipa mplus-fonts scim-anthy Will you continue? [y/N] -> y quirks-3.183 signed on 2020-01-31T18:21:51Z rox-filer-2.11p3:libiconv-1.16p0:ok rox-filer-2.11p3:xz-5.2.4:ok : icewm-1.6.1:libsndfile-1.0.28:ok icewm-1.6.1:ok Ambiguous: choose package for ja-kterm a 0: <None> 1: ja-kterm-6.2.0p9 2: ja-kterm-6.2.0p9-xaw3d Your choice: 1 ja-kterm-6.2.0p9:ok : scim-anthy-1.2.7p11:ok Running tags: New and changed readme(s): /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/glib2 /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/gtk+2 /usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/scim --- +ja-sazanami-ttf-20040629p3 ------------------- You may wish to update your font path for /usr/local/share/fonts/sazanami --- +mixfont-mplus-ipa-20060520p7 ------------------- You may wish to update your font path for /usr/local/share/fonts/mixfont-mplus-ipa --- +mplus-fonts-063 ------------------- You may wish to update your font path for /usr/local/share/fonts/mplus-fonts *** /root/.xsession already exists. *** This will be replaced with a new file. *** and the old one will be renamed to /root/.xsession_20200206_170903. *** Rewrite .xsession configuration file. Will you continue? [y/N] -> y Copy this .xsession file to /etc/skel ? [y/N] -> y ← Once copied, this setting will be inherited when a new user account is created. *** Japanese environment and related software have been set up. *** However, the time zone has not yet been set to JST. Set timezone to JST? [Y/n] -> y *** When you use this machine both running OpenBSD and Windows. *** You may set the hardware clock to JST instead UTC. Set hardware clock to JST? [Y/n] -> n *** all installation and configuration completed. *** Check your /root/.xsession and login to X if OK. *** Note: You can save this configuration and addtionally installed softwares *** by using usbfadm utility. *** And can reload them at next boot time by selecting boot mode 3.
After the above settings have been made, log out and log back in from the xenodm login screen to launch the installed desktop environment.
In the desktop environment, various applications can be added using the pkg_add command.
⇒Detailed explanation from installing FuguIta to installing various applications /ca008a34d73d5f1f6dd8]] has been published on the technical information sharing site Qiita. See also
As described in Login method selection in FuguIta's startup settings, you can choose between the method of logging in from the console screen and the method of logging in from the X Window System login screen(xenodm). Select.
Even if you choose to log in from the console screen, you can later change the method to log in from the X Window System login screen (xenodm).
To do this, modify the contents of the /etc/rc.conf.local file as described in Changing OS configuration.
The following example uses the rcctl command to enable xenodem.
fugu-demo$ doas rcctl enable xenodm fugu-demo$ doas rcctl ls on check_quotas cron library_aslr ntpd pf pflogd slaacd smtpd sndiod sshd syslogd xenodm #
If you enable xdm with the rcctl command, you can see that the line "xdm_flags=" is added to rc.conf.local.
fugu-demo$ cat /etc/rc.conf.local xenodm_flags= $
After changing the settings, save with usbfadm, and then start xdm in mode 3.
⇒When xdm is displayed, press <Control>+<Alt>+<F1> to switch to the normal text login screen. This virtual console has 12 faces in total, <Control>+<Alt>+<F1> to <Control>+<Alt>+ Allocated up to <F12>. The X display is bound to the 5th virtual console, so pressing <Control>+<Alt>+<F5> will return you to the X screen.
OpenBSD has a major release every six months, and at that time the version changes like OpenBSD 7.1 → OpenBSD 7.2.
And in half a year, fixes related to security and stability improvements have been made, and the fix information is provided on the official OpenBSD website at http://www.openbsd.org/errata72.html.
FuguIta also follows this modified information, and the currently published version has all the modified information applied so far (actually, application work and operation check Therefore, there is a time lag of several days after the correction information is released.)
In addition, to check the version of the OS currently in operation on FuguIta, execute the command as follows.
fugu-demo$ uname -a ← version of OS OpenBSD fugu-demo.localnet 5.8 RDROOT.MP#2 i386 fugu-demo$ sysctl kern.version ← version of kernel kern.version=OpenBSD 5.8-stable (RDROOT.MP) #2: Wed Nov 11 13:18:48 JST 2015 firstname.lastname@example.org:/opt/fi/5.8/sys/arch/i386/compile/RDROOT.MP fugu-demo$ cat /usr/fuguita/version ← version of FuguIta 5.8-201512272
This section explains how to update your current version ofFuguIta to the latest version;
This is when a major release of OpenBSD, on which FuguIta is based, is made. for example,
Fuguita-5.8-amd64-201504161 ↓ Fuguita-5.9-amd64-201510255
However, the OS that FuguIta is based on has changed from OpenBSD 5.8 to OpenBSD 5.9.
It is difficult to update the system if OpenBSD major release changes.
The reason is that when OpenBSD is upgraded, system call specifications are changed, shared libraries are not compatible with version upgrades, commands are added/deleted, and specifications are changed significantly. This is because it is not realistic to migrate versions while maintaining them.
To migrate across OpenBSD major releases, the following methods are recommended;
Fuguita-6.0-amd64-201511297 ↓ Fuguita-6.0-amd64-201512051
You can check that the "6.0" part, which indicates the OpenBSD version like, has not changed.
In this case, the system changes are only partial, so there is no need to migrate user data. To migrate the system, follow the steps below.
LiveDVD migration procedure
In the case of LiveDVD, partial rewriting of the media is not possible, so we will create a new version of LiveDVD version FuguIta and use it.
The data saved in the USB memory can be read and used as it is in startup mode 3.
LiveUSB migration procedure
For LiveUSB, you can update the active LiveUSB by using the command fiupdate (Fuguita update). To use fiupdate, boot the LiveUSB to be updated in mode 0, 1 or 2.
Then download the ISO image and SHA256 file of the new version from the distribution site, then launch fiupdate.
⇒Use LiveUSB for update is ISO image file. Please note that these are not *.img files.
⇒The SHA256 file is used by fiupdate to check that the contents of the downloaded file are not corrupted.fugu-demo# ls -l total 606752 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 310651490 Oct 7 01:12 FuguIta-6.7-amd64-202010071.iso.gz -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 562 Oct 8 06:25 SHA256 fugu-demo# cat /usr/fuguita/version 6.7-amd64-20209041 fugu-demo# fiupdate 202010071 fiupdate - Live Updater for FuguIta LiveUSB Version/Arch: 6.7/amd64 (FuguIta-6.7-amd64-20209041) Checking... environment: ok Note: This software is currently in beta testing. Use this at YOUR OWN RISK. We recommend that you run this command in fresh boot (boot mode 0, 1, or 2). Alternatively, you must quit all application software and save all your data before updating this FuguIta device. All daemons, including xenodm, will be stopped before the update. Please note that all X sessions will be aborted. Do you proceed? [y/N] -> y Checking... checksum: (SHA256) FuguIta-6.7-amd64-202010071.iso.gz: OK file layout: liveusb existing files: ok decompressing FuguIta-6.7-amd64-202010071.iso.gz... 9296MiB 0:00:31 [9.51MiB/s] [================================>] 100% ETA 0:00:00 Now ready to update FuguIta-6.7-amd64-20209041 to FuguIta-6.7-amd64-202010071. This machine will reboot immediately after update completed. Do you proceed? [y/N] -> y stopping all daemons... cron(ok) ntpd(ok) pflogd(ok) slaacd(ok) smtpd(ok) sndiod(ok) sshd(ok) syslogd(ok) overwriting uniprocessor kernel... 8.66MiB 0:00:06 [1.37MiB/s] [================================>] 100% ETA 0:00:00 overwriting multiprocessor kernel... 8.69MiB 0:00:04 [1.84MiB/s] [================================>] 100% ETA 0:00:00 overwriting filesystem image... 9864MiB 0:05:30 [3.05MiB/s] [================================>] 100% ETA 0:00:00 update completed. now rebooting... syncing disks... done
After the update is complete, the PC will restart automatically.
Operation after the LiveUSB update is the same as before, and there is no need to migrate data.
⇒When fiupdate is run over the network or on the X Window System, the following warning is displayed.It seems you are running this script on X Window System, via network or something like this. In this situation, during update, corresponding processes will be killed and then update may fail. Running this on direct console device is highly recommended. Continue anyway? [y/N] ->
fiupdate stops all daemons before updating system files. At this time, the network may be disconnected or the X session may be terminated, causing the update to fail.
So fiupdate should be run directly on the console device.
In order to use FuguIta as a terminal in a mobile environment, the basic part is not much different from operation in a fixed environment.
However, considering the unique circumstances of the mobile environment, there are aspects that can be operated more efficiently by adding settings.
In this section, we will explain the power supply related items of the notebook PC as such setting items.
Current PCs, especially laptops, have mechanisms called ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface) and APM (Advanced Power Management), which can monitor and control power supplies such as batteries.
In OpenBSD, these mechanisms are implemented as acpi(4) and apm(4), and through administrative commands can access.
acpi and apm are managed by a daemon called apmd.
Check status and configure apmd:
fugu-demo$ doas -s Password: fugu-demo# rcctl get apmd apmd_class=daemon apmd_flags=NO ← apmd is disabled apmd_timeout=30 apmd_user=root
fugu-demo# rcctl enable apmd fugu-demo# rcctl set apmd flags -A ← Automatically change the CPU clock frequency fugu-demo# rcctl start apmd according to the CPU load fugu-demo# rcctl get apmd apmd_class=daemon apmd_flags= apmd_timeout=30 apmd_user=root fugu-demo#
After completing the settings, usbfadm command to save and reboot in mode 3 Fuguita.
When apmd is running, you can monitor and control its status with the command apm.
fugu-demo$ apm Battery state: high, 89% remaining, 57 minutes life estimate A/C adapter state: not connected Performance adjustment mode: auto (1000 MHz)
In the example below, I gave the apm command the -L flag to set the CPU to always run at low clock
fugu-demo$ apm -L fugu-demo$ apm Battery state: high, 88% remaining, 42 minutes life estimate A/C adapter state: not connected Performance adjustment mode: manual (1000 MHz)
The status of hardware such as the battery can also be monitored using the sysctl command and the systat command.
fugu-demo$ sysctl hw.sensors hw.sensors.acpitz0.temp0=55.50 degC (zone temperature) hw.sensors.acpiac0.indicator0=Off (power supply) hw.sensors.acpibat0.volt0=14.80 VDC (voltage) hw.sensors.acpibat0.volt1=15.30 VDC (current voltage) hw.sensors.acpibat0.current0=1.19 A (rate) hw.sensors.acpibat0.amphour0=1.12 Ah (last full capacity) hw.sensors.acpibat0.amphour1=0.21 Ah (warning capacity) hw.sensors.acpibat0.amphour2=0.07 Ah (low capacity) hw.sensors.acpibat0.amphour3=0.92 Ah (remaining capacity), OK hw.sensors.acpibat0.amphour4=2.15 Ah (design capacity) hw.sensors.acpibat0.raw0=1 (battery discharging), OK hw.sensors.acpibtn0.indicator0=On (lid open) hw.sensors.acpidock0.indicator0=Off (not docked), UNKNOWN hw.sensors.cpu0.temp0=55.00 degC
fugu-demo$ systat sensors 3 users Load 0.40 0.42 0.37 Wed Dec 30 04:18:11 2015 SENSOR VALUE STATUS DESCRIPTION acpitz0.temp0 56.50 degC zone temperature acpiac0.indicator0 Off power supply acpibat0.volt0 14.80 V DC voltage acpibat0.volt1 15.26 V DC current voltage acpibat0.current0 1.08 A rate acpibat0.amphour0 1.12 Ah last full capacity acpibat0.amphour1 0.21 Ah warning capacity acpibat0.amphour2 0.07 Ah low capacity acpibat0.amphour3 0.90 Ah OK remaining capacity acpibat0.amphour4 2.15 Ah design capacity acpibat0.raw0 1 raw OK battery discharging acpibtn0.indicator0 On lid open acpidock0.indicator0 Off unknown not docked cpu0.temp0 56.00 degC
By default, the systat command updates the status every 5 seconds and continues to display it. Type 'q' to exit.
The apm command can also hibernate your PC.
In addition to the apm command, commands such as zzz and ZZZ can also be used to hibernate. In addition, depending on the PC model, some keys are assigned to pause operations.
The method of resuming from hibernation differs depending on the model, but it seems that there are many that press the power button briefly or press the hibernation key again.
!!Hibernation actions such as standby, sleep, and hibernate will disconnect the USB device and reconnect it on wakeup. Therefore, please note that the LiveUSB version of FuguIta, which mounts the file system on the USB device, will not work properly after the system is restored.
!!Depending on the model of the PC, hibernation operation may not work well (standby can be performed but suspend or hibernate cannot be performed, it cannot be resumed from hibernation, or the operation is unstable and sometimes resume fails, etc.). Please check the operation before using.
When using X, you can control the display with the xset command. Add the following line in .xinitrc under your home directory:
xset s on ← enable screensaver xset s 180 ← Screen saver operation start time (seconds) xset +dpms ← Switch display to power saving mode
With this example setting, the display will go into power saving mode if there is no mouse or keyboard activity for 180 seconds or more.
As explained in Basic network settings, network settings are made in several files under the /etc directory. can be generated.
In addition, you can have multiple network settings, and you can switch between them with the chnetconf command.
In Fuguita, network-related configuration files are stored in subdirectories under /etc/fuguita/netconfs, and before starting the network, the files in that subdirectory are copied to /etc, and then
the network is is set.
Settings made at initial boot are in /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default.
As an example, let's add two settings, "home" for home and "office" for work.
First, from the office. It is intended for use with Ethernet connections and fixed address settings. To add a new configuration, invoke gennetconfs with the configuration name "office".
fugu-demo# gennetconfs office =================================================== = gennetconfs: generate network configuration files =================================================== Hostname with domain part (FQDN): only host name without domain part is also OK. -> fuguita.office.local IP protocol version(s) to be enabled: 4, 6, 46, 64 or "none" 4: enable only IPv4 6: enable only IPv6 46: give priority to IPv4 name resolution 64: give priority to IPv6 name resolution none: operate as standalone  -> 4 Network Interfaces: Choose one NIC type Name -------- ----- ------------ bge0 ether Broadcom BCM57765 urtwn0 wifi GW-USValue-EZ GW-USValue-EZ [bge0] -> bge0 IPv4 - address and routing: Enter "auto" or "IPv4_address[/mask] [default_gateway]" "auto" is an automatic setting by DHCP. The "/mask" part can be specified in either format, such as "/255.255.255.0" or "/24". If there is no default gateway, set the second field to "none" or leave it blank. [auto] -> 192.168.20.115/24 192.168.20.254 DNS servers: up to 3 IP addresses, separated by spaces -> 192.168.20.254 writing configured values to: /etc/fuguita/netconfs/office/myname /etc/fuguita/netconfs/office/mygate /etc/fuguita/netconfs/office/hosts /etc/fuguita/netconfs/office/hostname.bge0 /etc/fuguita/netconfs/office/resolv.conf ====================================================== = end of gennetconfs: = Use chnetconf utility to activate this configuration ======================================================
When setting with gennetconfs is completed, a setting file is created in "/etc/fuguita/netconfs/setting name".
fugu-demo# cd /etc/fuguita/netconfs/ fugu-demo# ls -l total 24 drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 144 Nov 25 05:46 default drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 240 Nov 25 07:00 office drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 96 Nov 18 05:49 templ.head drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 0 Nov 18 05:49 templ.tail fugu-demo# ls -l office total 40 -rw-r----- 1 root wheel 23 Nov 25 07:00 hostname.bge0 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 36 Nov 25 07:00 hosts -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 15 Nov 25 07:00 mygate -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 21 Nov 25 07:00 myname -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 56 Nov 25 07:00 resolv.conf fugu-demo# ls -l /etc/ | grep netconfs lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 28 Nov 25 06:56 myname -> /etc/fuguita/netconfs/default/myname drwxr-xr-x 6 root wheel 192 Nov 25 06:59 netconfs
Use the chnetconf utility to actually apply these settings.
After executing chnetconf, after copying the specified configuration file to /etc, it internally executes "sh /etc/netstart" to change the network settings.
⇒ Of the configuration files, only the myname file will be a symbolic link instead of a copy. This is to indicate which settings in /etc/fuguita/netconfs are used by the network settings in /etc.
fugu-demo# chnetconf -l ← Show all settings *default ← This settng is active. office fugu-demo# chnetconf office fuguita# chnetconf -l default *office ← This configuration is active now. fuguita# ifconfig ← Check interface settings bge0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 lladdr 10:9a:dd:6c:11:0c index 1 priority 0 llprio 3 groups: egress media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX full-duplex,rxpause,txpause) status: active inet 192.168.20.115 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.20.255 urtwn0: flags=8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 lladdr 00:22:cf:46:6d:e6 index 4 priority 4 llprio 3 groups: wlan media: IEEE802.11 autoselect (OFDM54 mode 11g) status: no network ieee80211: nwid "" fugu-demo# ping www.google.com ← 疎通を確認 PING www.google.com (18.104.22.168): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 22.214.171.124: icmp_seq=0 ttl=115 time=28.318 ms 64 bytes from 126.96.36.199: icmp_seq=1 ttl=115 time=25.842 ms 64 bytes from 188.8.131.52: icmp_seq=2 ttl=115 time=26.137 ms ^C --- www.google.com ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 25.842/26.765/28.318/1.104 ms
Continue to create the setting "home" in the same way. This assumes that the address can be automatically set using a Wi-Fi connection using SLAAC for IPv6 and DHCP for IPv4.
fuguita# gennetconfs home =================================================== = gennetconfs: generate network configuration files =================================================== Hostname with domain part (FQDN): only host name without domain part is also OK. -> fuguita.home.local IP protocol version(s) to be enabled: 4, 6, 46, 64 or "none" 4: enable only IPv4 6: enable only IPv6 46: give priority to IPv4 name resolution 64: give priority to IPv6 name resolution none: operate as standalone  -> Network Interfaces: Choose one NIC type Name -------- ----- ------------ bge0 ether Broadcom BCM57765 urtwn0 wifi GW-USValue-EZ GW-USValue-EZ [bge0] -> urtwn0 Wi-Fi settings: SSID -> my-wifinet WPA Key -> my-wpa-secret-key IPv6 - address and routing: Enter "auto" or "IPv6_address[/prefixlen] [default_gateway]" "auto" is an automatic setting by SLAAC. The "/prefixlen" part can be an integer between 0 and 128. If there is no default gateway, set the second field to "none" or leave it blank. [auto] -> IPv4 - address and routing: Enter "auto" or "IPv4_address[/mask] [default_gateway]" "auto" is an automatic setting by DHCP. The "/mask" part can be specified in either format, such as "/255.255.255.0" or "/24". If there is no default gateway, set the second field to "none" or leave it blank. [auto] -> writing configured values to: /etc/fuguita/netconfs/home/myname /etc/fuguita/netconfs/home/hostname.urtwn0 /etc/fuguita/netconfs/home/resolv.conf ====================================================== = end of gennetconfs: = Use chnetconf utility to activate this configuration ====================================================== fuguita# chnetconf -l default home *office fuguita# chnetconf home fuguita# chnetconf -l default *home office fuguita# ifconfig bge0: flags=8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 lladdr 10:9a:dd:6c:11:0c index 1 priority 0 llprio 3 media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX full-duplex,rxpause,txpause) status: active urtwn0: flags=a48843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST,AUTOCONF6TEMP,AUTOCONF6,AUTOCONF4> mtu 1500 lladdr 00:22:cf:46:6d:e6 index 4 priority 4 llprio 3 groups: wlan egress media: IEEE802.11 autoselect (OFDM54 mode 11g) status: active ieee80211: nwid my-wpa-secret-key chan 10 bssid 1c:b1:7f:27:5c:de -62dBm wpakey wpaprotos wpa2 wpaakms psk wpaciphers ccmp wpagroupcipher ccmp inet6 fe80::222:cfff:fe46:6de6%urtwn0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x4 inet 192.168.10.113 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.10.255 inet6 2409:........:8d47 prefixlen 64 autoconf pltime 604795 vltime 2591995 inet6 2409:........:1974 prefixlen 64 autoconf temporary pltime 77241 vltime 172795 pflog0: flags=141<UP,RUNNING,PROMISC> mtu 33136 index 5 priority 0 llprio 3 groups: pflog
Now, 3 network settings are created, including the traditional default.
These settings can be toggled at any time using the chnetconf utility.
This section describes how to deploy Wi-Fi devices as an application of the gennetconfs and chnetconf commands.
OpenBSD supports a variety of Wi-Fi devices, some of which are not available out of the box and require firmware download and installation.
⇒The OpenBSD site has the following description about the reasons why you need to download the firmware;
OpenBSD FAQ - Wireless Networking
In order to use some wireless cards, you will need to acquire firmware files with fw_update. Some manufacturers refuse to allow free distribution of their firmware, so it can't be included with OpenBSD.
Such Wi-Fi devices
can be used. Here are the specific steps:
1. Set up a firmware-free device and connect to the internet
At startup, configure the device to connect to the Internet using a firmware-free device as follows.
Most wired LAN (Ethernet) devices and some WiFi devices do not require firmware. [Listen]
Network Interfaces: Choose one NIC type Name -------- ----- ------------ bge0 ether Broadcom BCM57766 urtwn0 wifi GW-USValue-EZ GW-USValue-EZ [bge0] -> bge0
2. Download and install the firmware
Log in as root and execute the fw_update command. Download and install firmware.
fugu-demo# fw_update -v Path to firmware: http://firmware.openbsd.org/firmware/7.0/ Installing: inteldrm-firmware intel-firmware urtwn-firmware inteldrm-firmware-20201218:100%|OK intel-firmware-20210608v0:100%|OK urtwn-firmware-20180103p0:100%|OK fugu-demo#
⇒fw_update is automatically executed at startup, but just in case, it is manually executed again.
3. Change the connection settings to the Wi-Fi device you want to use
Once the firmware is installed, change the connection setting to Wi-Fi Device and check the operation.
fugu-demo# gennetconfs wifi ← generate configuration file =================================================== = gennetconfs: generate network configuration files =================================================== ～ omitted ～ Network Interfaces: Choose one NIC type Name -------- ----- ------------ bge0 ether Broadcom BCM57766 urtwn0 wifi GW-USValue-EZ GW-USValue-EZ [bge0] -> urtwn0 ← select Wi-Fi device Wi-Fi settings: SSID -> my-wifinet ← enter Wi-Fi SSID WPA Key -> my-wpa-secret-key ← and password ～ omitted ～ ====================================================== = end of gennetconfs: = Use chnetconf utility to activate this configuration ====================================================== fugu-demo# chnetconf wifi ← change the network to the settings you just made fugu-demo# ping www.google.com ← check connection PING www.google.com (184.108.40.206): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 220.127.116.11: icmp_seq=0 ttl=114 time=33.656 ms 64 bytes from 18.104.22.168: icmp_seq=1 ttl=114 time=28.933 ms 64 bytes from 22.214.171.124: icmp_seq=2 ttl=114 time=26.193 ms 64 bytes from 126.96.36.199: icmp_seq=3 ttl=114 time=21.949 ms ^C --- www.google.com ping statistics --- 4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0.0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 21.949/27.683/33.656/4.253 ms
This completes the Wi-Fi firmware installation. Save using the usbfadm command the last modified content. If you specify this setting Reboot in mode 3, you can continue to use this setting.
fugu-demo# usbfadm -r ======================================== = Sync current mfs as fugu-demo into /dev/sd1d = : :
This section describes how to create a new FuguItaLiveUSB with another USB memory using FuguIta that
is already running.
With this method, you can allocate a swap partition, a data storage area, a FAT partition for data exchange with other OS, etc. by specifying the size of each. You can also specify data storage encryption.
The example below assumes that you are installing to a USB memory with a size of 4GB.
First, start FuguIta in mode 0 or mode 1. You can use either the LiveDVD version or the LiveUSB version of FuguIta to start.
Once booting is complete, run the usbfadm command with root privileges.
fugu-demo$ doas usbfadm doas (email@example.com) password: Welcome to usbfadm. USB flash drive administration tool for FuguIta Version/Arch: 7.2/amd64 (FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302081) Boot mode: usbflash Target device: /dev/sd1d Data saved as: fugu-demo readline capability available TAB to complete the reserved words Type ? for help. sd1d : fugu-demo ->newdrive ← Instruct LiveUSB creation Please make sure the device inserted. Then press ENTER -> ← After confirming that the USB memory is installed, press <Enter>. A list of recognized disk devices is displayed in chronological order. ↓ ==== disk(s) and vnode devices ============================ sd0 at scsibus1 targ 0 lun 0: <VirtIO, Block Device, > sd0: 65536MB, 512 bytes/sector, 134217728 sectors sd1 at scsibus2 targ 0 lun 0: <VirtIO, Block Device, > sd1: 4096MB, 512 bytes/sector, 8388608 sectors vnd0: not in use vnd1: not in use vnd2: not in use vnd3: not in use vnd4: not in use vnd5: covering /sysmedia/fuguita-7.2-amd64.ffsimg on cd0a, inode 48172 ============================================================ Enter the name of device which FuguIta will be installed->sd1 ← Specify device to create LiveUSB swapctl: no swap devices configured Disk: sd1 geometry: 522/255/63 [8388608 Sectors] Offset: 0 Signature: 0x0 Starting Ending LBA Info: #: id C H S - C H S [ start: size ] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused 1: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused 2: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused 3: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0: 0 ] unused Select boot method: 1: Legacy BIOS 2: [UEFI] 3: none (only for save data) 4: Hybrid -> Select partition type: 1: [MBR] 2: GPT -> Type of /ram: 1: [MFS] 2: TMPFS -> Enter sizes for swap, user data and extra FAT. You can add suffix K, M, G or T (otherwise considered 'bytes'). '*' implies 'all' '0' doesn't make this partition. 3GB (3085MB) (6319040sectors) free swap->0 ← If 0, do not create a swap partition. 0の場合はスワップパーティションを作成しない。 3GB (3085MB) (6319040sectors) free user data->2g ← Allocate 3 gigabytes with "2g" Type "*" to assign all the rest. user data encryption? [y/N] -> ← See another section for details Create an extra FAT partition? [y/n] -> y target disk: sd1 partition type=MBR boot type=UEFI -------------------- : ------ partition : size -------------------- : ------ whole disk : 4GB partition tables : 32KB UEFI system : 512KB FuguIta system : 1010MB FuguIta swap : 0B FuguIta user data : 2GB MSDOS FAT : 1GB -------------------- : ------ ***THIS IS THE LAST CHANCE*** If you type 'Y' now, all the data on sd1 will be lost. Are you sure to modify disk sd1? [y/N] -> y ======================================== = Clearing MBR, GPT and BSD disklabel = 1+0 records in 1+0 records out 1048576 bytes transferred in 0.009 secs (110136197 bytes/sec) ======================================== = Setting up fdisk partitions = ～ omitted ～ ** /dev/rsd1d ** File system is already clean ** Last Mounted on /mnt ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups 5 files, 5 used, 1012714 free (18 frags, 126587 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation) sd1d : fugu-demo ->quit Bye bye... fugu-demo$
The above will write the Fugu board system to the specified device and it will be ready for use.
!!Please check the device name of the write destination. Writing to the wrong device will result in the loss of data stored there.
If you make a diagram of what you have explained so far, it will look like the one on the right.
The i partition at the beginning of the media is created when UEFI is selected as the boot method.
In the a partition at the beginning of the media, the system of FuguIta is written. If you select "none" for "Select boot method:", the i partition and a partition will not be created because the media will be used exclusively for saving data.
Next, a d partition with the size you entered in "Enter size for saving User Data" will be created and used as the data destination for usbfadm.
If there is still unused space after allocating space for the above partitions, you will be asked "Create an extra FAT partition? [y/n] ->".
If you answer y to this, the j partition will be reserved. This partition is formatted as a FAT file system and can be accessed by other operating systems such as Windows. OpenBSD can also mount FAT, so it can be used to exchange data between FuguIta and other OS.
⇒The remastering of FuguIta described in this section can be used not only for USB memory but also for all recording devices that can be written from OpenBSD. For example, you can write to SD cards, compact flash, memory sticks or even ATA and SATA hard disks.
⇒Currently, there are two types of boot methods for PCs, "BIOS" and "UEFI". The methods described so far work for both boot methods.
If you specify "Legacy BIOS" as the boot method and "MBR" as the partition format, the media will support the "BIOS-only boot method.
The partition configuration in this case is as shown in the left figure. The UEFI boot partition is not created, and the FAT area becomes the i partition.
⇒ Even if you specify the boot method "Hybrid", you can create a USB memory that can boot with either BIOS or UEFI.
However, "Hybrid" is a non-standard creation method. In addition, please note that changing the partition with the fdisk command after creation will cause problems (Hybrid format is left for compatibility with past releases).
FuguIta requires the following settings during startup:
There is a function to automate the input for the above 5 items.
For that, write the settings to a file called noasks in the ``d'' partition of the LiveUSB version of FuguIta.
fugu-demo$ doas -s doas (firstname.lastname@example.org) password: fugu-demo# mount /dev/sd0d /mnt fugu-demo# cd /mnt fugu-demo# ls -l total 4 drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Oct 23 19:29 livecd-config fugu-demo# cd livecd-config/7.0/amd64 fugu-demo# ls -l drwxr-xr-x 11 root wheel 512 Nov 10 17:08 fugu-demo -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 422 Nov 9 22:19 noasks
⇒ Directory livecd-config is a directory for saving data by usbfadm.
In noasks, the setting value template is written in the form of comments, so use a text editor to uncomment the setting line and write the value you want to set.
fugu-demo# vi noasks
# # noasks - parameter settings for non-interactive boot # # Make statements uncommented # Then assign real values # # # FuguIta system device # - Use one of two lines ← FuguIta's system device: #noask_rdev=sd2a # device name format Uncomment specifying either #noask_rdev=f24c0ae78bb7e0e4.a # DUID format a regular device name or a DUID format. # # mfs size in MB #noask_umem=75% ← Specifies the amount of memory to allocate to MFS from the on-board memory. (Only numbers are in megabytes, % is installed memory, %% is percentage of installed memory + swap) # # boot mode #noask_setup_rw_mode=3 ← boot mode for auto start # # storage device # - Use one of two lines #noask_confdev=sd2d # device name format #noask_confdev=f24c0ae78bb7e0e4.d # DUID format # # data set name in USB flash drive #noask_confdir=fugu-demo
⇒Please do not put spaces before and after "=" in the setting value assignment statement (the noasks file is interpreted as a shell script).
After editing, unmount the d partition and reboot the system.
fugu-demo# cd fugu-demo# umount /mnt fugu-demo# /sbin/shutdown -r now
If the value is set by the noasks file, you will see the following
============================================ = ______ __ _ = / ____/ | |_| |__ = / /____ ______ __ _| /_ _/_____ = / ___/ / / / __ \/ / / | | | | / _ | = / / / /_/ / /_/ / /_/ /| | | |_| (_) |__ =/_/ \____/\__ /\____/ |__| \___/____/__/ = __/ / = /___/ = = Welcome to FuguIta! - OpenBSD Live System = http://fuguita.org/?FuguIta ============================================= scanning partitions: wd0i wd0j sd0a sd0d FuguIta's operating device(s): sd0a. Press ^C to cancel non-interactive boot
Wait 5 seconds after this "Press ^C to cancel non-interactive boot" is displayed and automatic boot will be performed.
If you enter ``<Control>-C'' within 5 seconds, the automatic startup by the noasks file will be aborted and normal operation will resume.
⇒If there is an unconfigured item in the noasks file, wait for input from the user at the item configuration during autostart.
⇒ Among the setting items, noask_rdev and noask_confdev can be specified by DUID (Disklabel Unique IDentifiers) in addition to normal device names such as sd0a. A DUID is a random, unique hexadecimal string automatically attached to a disk device.
The DUID can be found from the output of the disklabel command.fugu-demo# disklabel sd0 # /dev/rsd0c: type: ESDI disk: ESDI/IDE disk label: QEMU HARDDISK duid: eac6323f6d34c465 ←DUID flags: ～ omitted ～
For example, when specifying the FuguIta boot device in the noasks file, instead of writingnoask_confdev=sd0d
you can specify "DUID.partition" likenoask_confdev=eac6323f6d34c465.d
With normal device name specification, if the connection status of the disk device changes, sd0 will change to sd1, etc., and automatic startup may fail, but with DUID specification, the same disk is always specified regardless of the device connection status. can do.
In the previous section Make it possible to omit the setting input at startup, automation at FuguIta startup was explained, but it is also possible to automatically save data at the end.
OpenBSD runs a script called /etc/rc.shutdown when the system shuts down.
FuguIta describes the process of saving data in /etc/rc.shutdown.
force_umount=No # set Yes for forced umount /ram at shutdown force_resync=No # set Yes to re-sync at shutdown ～ omitted ～
By changing the setting value of force_resync on the second line of the file from "No" to "Yes", data will be saved at the end.
⇒ In this process, if the save process fails repeatedly, a shell will be launched. Use this shell to remove the cause of the failure and manually run usbfadm -r.
When you exit the shell, the save process is re-executed.
! ! If important processing is performed during operation, it is recommended to manually save thedata separately before shutting down.
As explained in Save settings and files in the Basics section, FuguIta's USB memory has a partition for saving data.
By using the function to encrypt the storage area, the information stored in the USB memory can be protected from accidents such as theft or loss.
[Creating a LiveUSB with the usbfadm command >#liveusb_remaster]] When using the newdrive function of the usbfadm command, You can create an encrypted partition by specifying as follows.
fugu-demo# usbfadm Welcome to usbfadm. USB flash drive administration tool for FuguIta Version/Arch: 6.7/amd64 (FuguIta-6.7-amd64-202006142) Boot mode: manual Data stored in: not set Data Saved as: not set Type ? for help. ? : ? ->newdrive ～ omitted ～ Enter sizes for swap, user data and extra FAT. You can add suffix K, M, G or T (otherwise considered 'bytes'). '*' implies 'all' '0' doesn't make this partition. 589MB (604128KB) (1208256sectors) free swap->64m 525MB (538592KB) (1077184sectors) free userrdata->* user data encryption? [y/N] -> y ← Specify data storage encryption Enter passphrase twice. They'll be not echoed. //// CAUTION //////////////////////////// //// If you lost this passphrase, //// you'll never access sd0d. ///////////////////////////////////////// Passphrase: ← Your input will not be displayed Passphrase: ← again for confirmation ～ omitted ～
To store data in an encrypted partition, there are two steps as below.
? : ? ->target Searching storage device Please make sure the device inserted. Then press ENTER -> sd0a ?sd0d ← The one with "?" at the beginning is the encrypted partition. target device->sd0d ← Specify this partition Passphrase: ← and enter the passphrase. sd1 at scsibus3 targ 1 lun 0: <OPENBSD, SR CRYPTO, 006> sd1: 525MB, 512 bytes/sector, 1076656 sectors softraid0: CRYPTO volume attached as sd1 sd0a ?sd0d +sd1d ← A new disk sd1d appears if the passphrase is correct. target device->sd1d ← Specify sd1d as the save destination, and then save using the normal procedure. sd1d : ? ->saveas Name of avedd ata->fugu-demo Your data will be saved as ``fugu-demo''. sd1d : fugu-demo ->sync Sync current mfs as ``fugu-demo'' , OK? [y/N] -> y copying /ram to /mnt/livecd-config/6.7/amd64/fugu-demo (30688KB approx.): 25.0MiB 0:00:38 [9673KiB/s][[===========================> ] 83% ETA 0:00:07 waiting for pax to finish ... syncing ... done. sd1d : fugu-demo ->byeLoading saved data on subsequent launches is a two-step process similar to saving.
============================================ = ______ __ _ = / ____/ | |_| |__ = / /____ ______ __ _| /_ _/_____ = / ___/ / / / __ \/ / / | | | | / _ | = / / / /_/ / /_/ / /_/ /| | | |_| (_) |__ =/_/ \____/\__ /\____/ |__| \___/____/__/ = __/ / = /___/ = = Welcome to FuguIta - OpenBSD Live System = http://fuguita.org/ ============================================= scanning partitions: sd0a sd0b sd0d cd0a FuguIta's operating device(s): sd0a cd0a. Which is FuguIta's operating device? -> sd0a activating swap partition: /dev/sd0b user memory: 239 MB Enter mfs size in MB. (0MB is auto) [default: 0MB] -> mfs size will be automatically allocated Boot modes: 0: fresh boot - standard mode as a live system 1: fresh boot - less memory, faster boot (/usr is non-writable, can't pkg_add) 2: fresh boot - works using only RAM (about 1GB or more of RAM required) 3: boot with retrieving saved files from storage device or enter passphrase for an encrypted volume 4: boot with retrieving saved files from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging ->3 ← select boot mode 3 scanning partitions: sd0a sd0b sd0d cd0a Device(s) found: encrypted: sd0d Which is FuguIta's storage device? -> sd0d Passphrase: ↓ If the passphrase is correct, a new disk will appear. sd1 at scsibus3 targ 1 lun 0: <OPENBSD, SR CRYPTO, 006> sd1: 525MB, 512 bytes/sector, 1076656 sectors softraid0: CRYPTO volume attached as sd1 Passphrase successful: Select boot mode again... Boot modes: 0: fresh boot - standard mode as a live system 1: fresh boot - less memory, faster boot (/usr is non-writable, can't pkg_add) 2: fresh boot - works using only RAM (about 1GB or more of RAM required) 3: boot with retrieving saved files from storage device or enter passphrase for an encrypted volume 4: boot with retrieving saved files from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging ->3 ← Specify boot mode 3 again scanning partitions: sd0a sd0b sd0d cd0a sd1d Device(s) found: loadable from: sd1d ← You can read from the newly appeared disk. encrypted: sd0d Which is FuguIta's storage device? [default: sd1d] -> sd1d /dev/sd1d : available data; fugu-demo config name -> fugu-demo Copying files from flash to ram ... done ～ omitted ～This disk will be visible after boot completes, so you don't need to enter the passphrase again when saving data.
Usually, FuguIta does not use swap and runs only in main memory, but in an environment like normal OpenBSD and FuguIta coexisting, the OpenBSD swap partition is detected. , and also enable it.
Which is FuguIta's operating device? -> wd0a activating swap partition: /dev/wd0b activating swap partition: /dev/wd1b
In this example, we found two swap partitions /dev/wd0b and /dev/wd1b and both are enabled.
Swap partitions are enabled upon detection. There is no setting to disable/enable this.
⇒If you don't want to use swap for some reason (e.g. your swap partition might have bad sectors that might cause the process to crash, you don't want to leave a memory image on disk, etc.) In this case, select startup mode 5 "interactive shell for debugging".
After selection, execute the swapctl command with the -d option to disable the swap when the shell starts up.
After exiting the shell, the boot mode will be selected again, so select the original boot mode and resume processing.
Usually in Unix OS, the partition to be mounted is specified in a file called /etc/fstab.
So if a user wants to add or change which partitions are mounted, change what is written in fstab.
However, in FuguIta, even if you change the contents of the fstab file and restart, the contents will not be reflected in the mount status of the file system.
During startup initialization, FuguIta probes all disk devices connected to the PC to detect system partitions, etc. It also receives specifications from users as needed.
Finally, the resulting fstab is automatically generated, based on which the filesystem is mounted.
Therefore, even if the user changes and saves fstab, the contents will be overwritten at the next boot.
If you want to add a partition to mount, write it in the file /etc/fuguita/fstab.tail.
As an example, if you want to additionally mount the e partition of the disk named sd2 to the directory named /ram/opt, the procedure is as follows.
/dev/sd2e /ram/opt ffs rw 0 1
fugu-demo# mkdir /ram/opt
⇒The mount point must be created inside mfs (under the /ram directory).
⇒/ram The directories and files directly under the /ram directory are automatically symbolically linked from the root directory at startup. Thus /ram/opt can be accessed as /opt.
Until now, most of the explanations have been based on the assumption that either the LiveDVD version or the LiveUSB version of Fuguita is used, but what happens if both the LiveDVD and LiveUSB are installed in the PC and booted? Huh? Or what if you make two LiveUSBs, insert them both and boot?
FuguIta is designed to work well in such cases.
I will explain the case where both LiveDVD and LiveUSB are installed and booted.
First, whether the DVD or USB boot immediately after turning on the power depends on the setting of the PC's BIOS menu as described in Boot settings.
Next is the operational device (the device mounted in the directory /fuguita and used as the OS).
scanning partitions: wd0i wd0j cd0a sd0a sd0d FuguIta's operating device(s): cd0a sd0a. Which is FuguIta's operating device? ->
enumerates the available devices like and asks the user which one to use.
⇒ In the above example, wd0i and wd0j are assumed to be internal hard disks. If Windows is installed on the internal hard disk and there are two partitions, C drive and D drive, it will be displayed like this.
When reading the saved data, if there are multiple candidates, ask the user which one to use. For example, if you select boot mode 3 with two LiveUSBs inserted, two candidates sd0d and sd1d are displayed as follows;
Boot modes: 0: fresh boot - standard mode as a live system 1: fresh boot - less memory, faster boot (/usr is non-writable, can't pkg_add) 2: fresh boot - works using only RAM (about 1GB or more of RAM required) 3: boot with retrieving saved files from storage device or enter passphrase for an encrypted volume 4: boot with retrieving saved files from floppy disk 5: interactive shell for debugging ->3 scanning partitions: wd0i wd0j sd0a sd0d sd1a sd1d Device(s) found: loadable from: sd0d sd1d Which is FuguIta's storage device? ->
When saving data with the usbfadm command, you can specify the destination device using the target command of usbfadm as described in Saving settings and files.
By applying the above, the following operations are possible.
⇒The USB memory is mounted only when saving/restoring data, so you can remove it at other times.
This feature of FuguIta that "startup and operation can be performed on separate devices" can be further utilized to OpenBSD and FuguIta coexist and [[Windows or Linux and FuguIta coexist> #coexist_other]] is also possible. These will be introduced in the following sections.
⇒ Note that the automation of setting input described in Make it possible to omit setting input at startup is only possible when there is only one noasks file in all partitions. It will be executed. If two or more noasks files are detected, the automatic execution will stop for safety and shift to manual input.
If OpenBSD is already installed on the PC on which you are going to run FuguIta, you can start FuguIta by placing the FuguIta files in the installed OpenBSD even if LiveDVD or LiveUSB is not attached. can.
The principle is to put the FuguIta kernel and ISO image on an existing OpenBSD partition and use the existing bootloader to boot the FuguIta kernel.
Here's how to install and start.
First start your existing OpenBSD and login as root.
Next, create a directory called "ISO" directly under the root directory.
Download the ISO image from the FuguIta site to this /ISO directory and expand it. fugu-demo# mkdir /ISO fugu-demo# cd /ISO fugu-demo# ftp http://mirror.ginzado.ne.jp/pub/FuguIta/FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso.gz Trying 188.8.131.52... Requesting http://mirror.ginzado.ne.jp/pub/FuguIta/FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso.gz 100% |**************************************************| 322 MB 07:48 338634465 bytes received in 468.48 seconds (705.90 KB/s) fugu-demo# ls -l total 661632 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 338634465 Dec 29 00:55 FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso.gz fugu-demo# gunzip FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso.gz fugu-demo# ls -l total 1427648 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 730744832 Dec 29 00:55 FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso
Copy the FuguIta kernel included in the ISO image directly under the root directory. vnconfig is a command that allows you to access ISO or USB memory image files as storage devices.
fugu-demo# vnconfig vnd0 FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso fugu-demo# vnconfig -l vnd0: covering FuguIta-6.0-amd64-201612251.iso on wd0a, inode 25986 vnd1: not in use vnd2: not in use vnd3: not in use fugu-demo# mount -r /dev/vnd0a /mnt fugu-demo# ls -l /mnt total 1427119 -r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 71452 Apr 4 2015 boot -rwxr--r-- 1 root wheel 2048 Dec 27 11:59 boot.catalog -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 5569179 Dec 27 19:19 bsd-fi -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 5577796 Dec 27 19:19 bsd-fi.mp -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 72328 Dec 27 19:19 cdboot -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 2048 Dec 27 19:19 cdbr drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 2048 Apr 18 2014 etc -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 719388672 Dec 27 19:19 fuguita-5.8.ffsimg fugu-demo# cp -p /mnt/bsd-fi /mnt/bsd-fi.mp / fugu-demo# umount /mnt fugu-demo# vnconfig -u vnd0 fugu-demo# vnconfig -l vnd0: not in use vnd1: not in use vnd2: not in use vnd3: not in use fugu-demo#
The installation is now complete.
⇒If you want to save and restore data, create a directory called livecd-config. However, it cannot be created in the same location as the ISO directory. This is because the partition where the ISO directory is created is mounted as non-writable while FuguIta is running. Therefore, a suitable partition for creating a livecd-config is directly under another partition's mount point, eg /home or /var.
Next is the boot method, the PC boots and the "boot>" prompt is displayed for a few seconds just before the kernel message is displayed.
If you do nothing here, the existing OpenBSD system will boot, but if you enter the kernel you want to boot, that kernel will boot.
This "bsd-fi.mp" is the FuguIta kernel for multiprocessors. Enter "bsd-fi" if you want to launch the FuguIta kernel for a single processor.
⇒In the above explanation, the ISO directory and livecd-config directory were created directly under the root directory, but if it is directly under the partition where the OpenBSD file system is created, it is not directly under the root directory. also works.
FuguIta can also use partitions formatted with Windows NTFS or FAT, Linux EXT-2, EXT-4 file systems as operating devices.
This method is almost the same as the procedure explained in OpenBSD and FuguIta coexisting. in short,
However, when using FuguIta from a Windows or Linux file system, there are the following limitations.
On FuguIta, MFS is created as a file system on memory and mounted on /ram, but this MFS can be changed to TMPFS.
Both MFS and TMPFS hold files in memory, but there are differences as follows.
|file holding||user process||kernel space|
|Memory usage||Once acquired, it is not released even if the file is deleted|
(It is reused in subsequent file creation)
|Memory is dynamically acquired and released by creating and deleting files|
|Capacity upper limit||There is a maximum value for each architecture|
(i386:1GB, arm64:15GB, amd64:30GB)
|Depends on amount of memory + swap|
|Works||Stable||May be unstable (see below)|
FuguIta adopts MFS because it emphasizes the stability of operation, but by specifying it when remastering, it is possible to create a media of FuguIta that uses TMPFS. To create a LiveDVD, use a tool called remaster_dvd.sh, where you can specify the file system to use with the -m option.
fugu-demo# cp -pR /sysmedia . fugu-demo# cd sysmedia fugu-demo# remaster_dvd.sh -h /usr/fuguita/sbin/remaster_dvd.sh: -h: unknown option Usage: remaster_dvd.sh [-m mfs|tmpfs] fugu-demo# remaster_dvd.sh -m tmpfs Changing file system of /ram: from mfs to tmpfs mkhybrid 1.12b5.1 Scanning . Scanning ./etc Size of boot image is 4 sectors -> No-emulation CD boot sector Total translation table size: 0 Total rockridge attributes bytes: 1028 Total directory bytes: 2048 Path table size(bytes): 22 512760 extents written (1001 Mb) fugu-demo# cd .. fugu-demo# ls -l total 2053057 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 1050132480 Mar 14 03:57 FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202303133.iso drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Oct 22 17:09 sysmedia fugu-demo#
When remastering LiveUSB, specify the newdrive subcommand of usbfadm as follows.
fugu-demo$ doas usbfadm doas (email@example.com) password: Welcome to usbfadm. USB flash drive administration tool for FuguIta Version/Arch: 7.2/amd64 (FuguIta-7.2-amd64-202302081) Boot mode: usbflash Target device: /dev/sd1d Data saved as: fugu-demo readline capability available TAB to complete the reserved words Type ? for help. sd1d : fugu-demo ->newdrive ~ abbreviated ~ Type of /ram: 1: [MFS] 2: TMPFS ->2 ~ abbreviated ~
In FuguIta media with TMPFS enabled, the file system capacity settings at startup are as follows.
Enter tmpfs size (0 is auto). You can add suffix K, M, or G. % is a percentage of memory size. and %% is a percentage of the total memory and swap. otherwise considered "megabytes" [default: 0M] ->
In this way, the default setting value is "0", and if this is specified, the capacitance value is automatically set.
⇒Switching between MFS and TMPFS does not affect system operation. You can also save data by usbfadm sync on MFS, then start up in mode 3 on the system switched to TMPFS and read the data. The reverse (TMPFS → MFS) is also possible.
⇒ Note that TMPFS is not completely stable as documented in man page. TMPFS can cause a kernel panic under frequent page-out/page-in situations.