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swap on ext3 partition? (2018-09-16 (Sun) 00:28:48)

LiveCD (DVD) booted FuguIta, loading/saving changes to a /livecd-config folder on a FuguIta installed to USB. Picks up my OpenBSD HDD installed 2GB swapfile at bootup, but I mounted a ext3 partition, dd'd a 2GB file called swapfile, vnconfig vnd0 swapfile, and ... swapctl -a /tmp/i/swapfile i.e. using a filesystem on a ext3 partition as additional FuguIta's swapfile space ... and top is showing the 4GB combined swap space available :) Obviously running liveCD (in ram) can run out of ram relatively easily on a system such as my own that has only 2GB of ram, so swap is a saviour if running FuguIta as a desktop type system (X).

With LibreOffice and firefox-esr installed, it runs OK (also installed mtpaint to take the snapshot). I'm using cwm window manager.

Screenshot ...


  • And a swap partition extends the size of tmpfs, because also tmpfs can be paged out to a swap partions/files. Like you, I have a Desktop Environment of FuguIta on i386 laptop with 800MB ram.
    In this machine, swap partition on HDD is enabled at boot time, and partially mounted HDD-ffs partitions like this:
    $ swapctl -lk
    Device      1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity  Priority
    /dev/wd0b     8391600        0  8391600     0%    0
    $ df -h
    Filesystem     Size    Used   Avail Capacity  Mounted on
    /dev/rd0a      1.6M    715K    847K    46%    /
    /dev/wd0a      7.9G    1.4G    6.5G    18%    /sysmedia-iso
    /dev/vnd4a     700M    700M      0B   100%    /sysmedia
    /dev/vnd5a     676M    562M    114M    83%    /fuguita
    tmpfs          632M   47.8M    584M     8%    /ram
    /dev/wd0e      5.2G    1.8G    3.1G    38%    /ram/opt
    $ ls -lf /opt /usr/local /ram/home
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel   7 Sep 17 07:49 /opt -> ram/opt
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  30 Aug 30 07:54 /usr/local -> /opt/nimbus11-mobile/usr/local
    lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  25 Aug 30 07:53 /ram/home -> /opt/nimbus11-mobile/home
    $ cat /etc/rc.local
    if ! mount -o softdep /dev/wd0e /opt
        fsck -fy /dev/rwd0e
        mount -o softdep /dev/wd0e /opt
    if mount | grep -q '/dev/wd0e on /ram/opt'
        ldconfig -m /usr/local/lib
    $ cat /etc/rc.shutdown
    PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin /usr/fuguita/sbin/usbfadm -r
    $ pkg_info -t
    audacious-plugins-3.9p0 input and output plugins for Audacious
    audacity-1.3.9p9    free audio editor
    emacs-25.3p0-gtk3   GNU editor: extensible, customizable, self-documenting
    firefox-i18n-ja-59.0.2 ja language pack for Firefox
    intel-firmware-20180312v0 firmware binary images for intel(4) driver
    ja-kterm-6.2.0p9    Japanese-capable xterm
    ja-sazanami-ttf-20040629p3 japanese true type fonts
    mixfont-mplus-ipa-20060520p6 high quality Japanese truetype fonts
    morseplayer-1.4p0   morse player
    mplayer-20161008p7  movie player supporting many formats
    normalize-0.7.7p2   audio file volume normalizer
    php-5.6.34          server-side HTML-embedded scripting language
    qiv-2.3.1p0         very small and pretty fast gdk/Imlib image viewer
    quirks-2.414        exceptions to pkg_add rules
    radeondrm-firmware-20170119 firmware binary images for radeondrm(4) driver
    rlwrap-0.43         generic readline wrapper for various programs
    rox-filer-2.11p1    GTK+-2 file manager with desktop features
    rsync-3.1.3         mirroring/synchronization over low bandwidth links
    sshfs-fuse-2.5p1    mount remote directories over ssh
    timidity-2.13.2p6-xaw MIDI to WAV renderer and player
    uim-gtk-1.8.6p5     uim for GTK+2
    wget-1.19.4         retrieve files from the web via HTTP, HTTPS and FTP
    xfig-3.2.6          CAD drawing program for X11
    Window manager is cwm, and file manager is ROX-Filer. -- kaw? 2018-09-17 (Mon) 07:50:03 New
  • CD to boot, USB stick as the changes store area, with HDD being "temp" is nice in that you can unplug the USB immediately after booting to it remains secure. Once you have the programs/configuration you like you might save infrequently, perhaps just booting, making changes, saving. For the rest of time just boot and use, and then shutdown without saving has system security maintained. Just store your own data/docs...etc. outside of (separate to) that. Being able to boot a clean/exact-same OS each and every time, but with the option to change/update that, potentially eliminates the risk of a virus caught during one session persisting into future sessions as a reboot has you back to clean OS/configuration again. -- Rufwoof? 2018-09-17 (Mon) 23:01:44 New

Save to ext2/3/4

Rufwoof? (2018-09-15 (Sat) 12:42:29)

Hi kaw

Thinking along the lines that you can create a ffs file filesystem on a ext2 partition ...

Mount a ext2 partition and then cd to that partition and ...

   dd if=/dev/zero of=diskimage bs=1M count=100
   vnconfig vnd0 diskimage
   newfs vnd0c
   mkdir /home/user/mountpoint
   mount /dev/vnd0c /home/user/mountpoint

... and then use that filesystem ...

   echo hello >/home/user/mountpoint/myfile.txt

... and when done

   umount /home/user/mountpoint
   vnconfig -u vnd0

We have a ffs file filesystem residing on a ext2 partition. We can remount that by again mounting the ext2 partition and cd to that and ...

   mkdir /home/user/mountpoint
   vnconfig vnd0 diskimage
   mount /dev/vnd0c /home/user/mountpoint

and ls /home/user/mountpoint will show the myfile.txt file created earlier.

Fundamentally I'm thinking that FuguIta's saves (livecd-config), that currently need to be on a ffs partition, could be stored on a ext2 partition as a ffs file filesystem such that a liveCD could boot and laod/save its ram images (changes) to a ext2 hard disk drive.

A pre-prepared ffs filesystem file could be provided/downloaded so that new users with no BSD already installed/working, but perhaps Linux working, could copy that ffs file filesystem to one of their ext2 partitions/folders, boot a FuguIta CD and store their changes into that ffs file filesystem stored on their ext2 partition.

Another thought - not sure - but it might be possible to create a swap file - stored on disk and activated

   dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/swap0 bs=1024k count=1024 
   chmod 0600 /usr/swap0
   swapctl -a /usr/swap0 

That would help reduce the chances of FuguIta locking up if larger programs were being run and where otherwise no swap file/partition was available.

  • The FuguIta option you explained is particularly useful for Linux users. Also for Windows users, I think that we can add similar options to FAT partitions. How can we implement these smartly? Either way, I think that it is necessary to modify the startup script (/boottmp/rc) and create a tool like usbfadm. -- kaw? 2018-09-17 (Mon) 07:26:01 New
  • A problem can be if ext2/3/4 isn't shutdown correctly then BSD can't mount it in a unclean state. That can be particularly awkward with NTFS systems that have hybernated instead of shutdown. Modifications to /boottmp/rc and another usbfadm like script (hddfadm) could provide the functionality excepting the issues I mentioned earlier -- Rufwoof? 2018-09-17 (Mon) 22:41:54 New


rufwoof? (2018-09-08 (Sat) 21:00:06)

I didn't correctly format the commands/code section in my prior post (so part showing as text, part as code). Sorry.

  • No problem. I fixed it. Thanks for the post. -- kaw? 2018-09-10 (Mon) 02:36:38

reverse sshfs from FuguIta

rufwoof? (2018-09-08 (Sat) 20:58:05)

Linux liveCD desktop system (Fatdog). Fuguita liveCD booted another PC and running

rm -f "$fifo"
mkfifo -m600 "$fifo" &&
  < "$fifo" /usr/libexec/sftp-server |
  ssh root@ sshfs -o slave :/root /data '' > "$fifo"
rm "$fifo"

Reverse sshfs mounts the Fuguita's /root folder as a (pre created /data folder) mountpoint on my Fatdog system.

If on the Fuguita box you mount a HDD and share a folder on that with Fatdog, then your data (more often the most invaluable on single user desktop setups) is isolated, only the folder/content you share with Fatdog (main desktop) is at risk and backup copies can be made/restored on the OpenBSD box to protect that data. I used a old single core celeron box for the FuguIta boot. The Fatdog PC is a later box (but still relatively old i.e. single core Acer Aspire 2GB Phenom X4).

For some ssh throughput optimisation, add -o compression=no -o Cipher=arcfour just before the -o slave code in the above.

  • Thanks for useful information. I haven't been used sshfs yet. And used to another way to do the same ... maybe NFS over SSH L2/L3 tunnel (-w option of ssh). sshfs seems to be easier. Then will try it. -- kaw? 2018-09-10 (Mon) 02:34:47

Test, just a test

Patrickgoame? (2018-09-01 (Sat) 21:18:23)


  • Hello -- kaw? 2018-09-02 (Sun) 08:36:34

network reconriguring by gennetconfs

kaw? (2018-08-07 (Tue) 18:18:25)

At FuguIta-6.3-201808061, a new tool called gennetconfs has been introduced.
This tool generates configuration files for networking, so you can reconfigure network settings;

gennetconfs [dir]

dir is the directory which configuration files will generated on.
If dir not specified, current directory will be taken by default.

gennetconfs /etc

will overwrite directly existing files under /etc .

Because of gennetconfs was derived from FuguIta's boot sequence /boottmp/rc,
the interaction with gennetconfs is the same as one at boot time.

Various Operations of FuguIta

kaw? (2018-06-04 (Mon) 15:23:16)

FuguIta originally started as a LiveCD, but now we can use various devices. In addition, there are several types in operation.
So, I tried to make a table of combinations of how these devices can be used.
Note that If there are multiple available devices, you can use them in combination.

(distrib. ISO)
(distrib. img)
boot fromOOOOXXX
boot mode
0, 1, 2OOOOOOO
save data toXOOOOXX

Explanation of the table

In the table above, each column indicates a device that FuguIta can handle.

CD (distrib. ISO)
CD, CD-R, CD-RW etc burned ISO image downloaded from distribution site.
You can burn it to DVD but you can use it, the size is 700 MB same as CD.
USB (distrib. img)
This is a USB flashdrive into which the IMG file downloaded from the distribution site is written.
Regardless of the USB flashdrive size used, the capacity is fixed at 1 GB (system 700 MB + data storage area 300 MB).
USB (usbfadm)
This is a USB flashdrive created using FuguIta's usbfadm command.
When executing the usbfadm command, you can set the size of the data storage area.
You can also create FAT in free space not used by FuguIta for data exchange with other OS.
OpenBSD system already installed. To use this from FuguIta, perform the following operations in advance.
  • a : Copy FuguIta's kernel - /sysmedia/bsd-fi and /sysmedia/ to the partition where the OpenBSD kernel resides, and by entering "" or "bsd-fi" for boot prompt "boot>", FuguIta starts up.
  • b : By creating a directory called "ISO" on any partition of OpenBSD and placing the ISO image of FuguIta here, you can use it as an operational device.
  • c : You can save and restore data here by creating a directory called "livecd-config" on any partition of OpenBSD.
    However, you can not do b and c at the same time on the same partition.
SD (usbfadm)
This is an SD card created using FuguIta usbfadm command.
Linux ext2fs ... ext4fs and Windows NTFS, FAT partitions.
By creating a directory called "ISO" on these partitions and placing the FuguIta ISO image here, you can use it as an operational device.
File system created in memory. It is created automatically when FuguIta is started, and the contents are lost at the end.

Each line of the table is an operation form which can be selected at the time of starting up FuguIta or during operation.

boot from
FuguIta is a bootable device that loads the kernel. If there are multiple bootable devices, specify them using the BIOS boot menu.
run on
This is the device where the system file of Fugu Ita is installed and used for operation. It is mounted read-only.
If there are multiple available devices, specify the device at startup.
with boot mode
This is how to layout memory and operation devices during operation. The main boot modes are as follows.
  • mode 0 : This is standard operation as LiveCD / LiveUSB.
  • mode 1 : It is almost the same as mode 0, but it is completed in a shorter time and it operates with saving memory (about 64 MB minimum). However, pkg_add cannot be used because /usr becomes non-writable.
  • mode 2 : It operates using only tmpfs. Although it takes time to complete the boot, file input/output during operation is fast. Memory requires about 800 MB, or more.
  • mode 3 : Read data saved by usbfadm at boot time.
set parameters with
Usually, when starting FuguIta, it is necessary to manually input the operation device, tmpfs size, start mode, etc. However, if these parameters are described in the file "noasks", at startup this is set automatically, you can omit manual input.
save data to
As described in boot mode 3, you can save the file to the device specified by the usbfadm command.

FuguIta 6.3 for Raspberry Pi 3

kaw? (2018-05-31 (Thu) 16:42:17)

Although it is still a test version, it is working well on my RPi3.
Even without a serial cable, you can install and use it by connecting from the SSH client.

README for more further details.

Former articles are at FuguIta/BBS/7.

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Last-modified: 2018-09-17 (Mon) 23:01:44 (2d)